Monthly Archives: January 2017

A St. Louis Personal Injury Lawyer Shoulders Multiple Responsibilities

A personal injury lawyer represents those clients who claim to have been injured either physically or psychologically. Such injuries are inflicted upon the victims as a result of either negligence or wrongdoing of other persons. The state-specific injury laws are in force in different provinces along the length and breadth of USA. Therefore, if a person has been victimized due to others’ inadvertent or deliberate action in St. Louis, he or she should seek advice from a St. Louis personal injury lawyer.

Personal injury law, known to be tort law, covers a vast horizon including economic or non-economic damages to a person’s right, fame as well as material possessions. A person, company and even a government agency may be responsible for causing damage to an innocent entity. Harsh punishment for the wrongdoer is a must to secure justice for the poor victims and their families. Help of a St. Louis personal injury lawyer is a need for a St. Louis resident who has earned injuries not owing to his faults but someone else’s.

A St. Louis injury lawyer is well-trained and licensed to practice in any filed of law but he only handles the injury related cases. Tort law applies but is not restricted to work injuries, vehicle accidents, defective products, slip and fall injuries, medical mistakes and many more.

In order to be a St. Louis injury lawyer, the ambitious students have to pass a written ‘bar examination’. Sometimes they have to appear for a written ‘ethics examination’ too. Once the injury lawyers get admission to the state bar, they have to complete some legal education courses. Such courses help them be well aware of the latest development in the legal and non-legal fields. Imbibing up-to-date knowledge in the law and related fields is what helps a St. Louis personal injury lawyer efficiently cater to the needs of his clients.

A law degree holder in St. Louis can concentrate on handling only personal injury cases. By shifting his sole attention to a specific arena of law, an injury lawyer can earn specialized knowledge and experience in that field. The injured persons, being in a deep trouble and intently waiting for justice turn to an expert St. Louis personal injury lawyer rather than rapping on the door of an jack-of-all-trades and master-of-none attorney. A St. Louis injury lawyer must complete a certification program accredited by the American Bar Association prior to starting practice as a specialist injury lawyer.

Once permitted by the state bar association to practice law, the lawyers have the full right to file legal complains, represent the injured victims in the court and argue with the opponent lawyers. A St. Louis personal injury lawyer has to shoulder multiple responsibilities to serve his clients to a T. Apart from trying utmost to tilt the verdict of the case in favor of their clients, the injury lawyers have also to conform to the ethical rules and professional codes of conduct as set by the bar association of the state. The injury lawyers, also referred to as plaintiff lawyers, interview the clients, assess their cases, go for extensive study to build up a strong case. A St. Louis injury lawyer is a trusted personality to ensure justice for his plaintiffs and also secure the just amount of compensation they deserve.

Lucky Lottery Systems How to Know Which Winning Lottery System to Try

I cant actually call myself the definitive source on the subject of which winning lottery method to try because I havent personally tried any winning lottery system yet. I havent won a mega lottery jackpot and this article is not a testimonial of the various programs. But the subject interests me and I want to share my opinions.

I think that Im most of the worlds email lists and Ive recently received two mail outs that tweaked my further reading and thoughts on the subject matter. The first I received {spoke of winning the lottery by the law of attraction.

Perhaps youve seen or explored this avenue: the law of attraction used to be a very hot topic and a large number of Internet products are still rooted on principles expressed in The Secret.
Winning Lottery Jackpots using the Law of Attraction The law of attraction works. I can attest to this from my own experience and I deem myself an expert on attracting but I wonder if it works specifically for lottery wins. I suppose that it must but the law of attraction needs absolute faith and therein is the problem.

Think of the law of attraction as being similar to faith healing. The healing doesnt happen without the faith and similarly, the law of attraction will not attract anything beneficial unless you really believe that it will. To perform as it can, the law of attraction needs you to think of it as a law that is as unbreakable as the law of gravity. Can you manage the total belief in a law of attraction winning lottery system? Bearing in mind that any slight wavering in belief nullifies the possibility.

Winning Lottery Jackpots using a Mathematical Formula The other email offer I received was one suggesting that a math teacher had a lottery winning formula for sale. Those who know me may think this type of lottery winning system would be the last one I would use or suggest, but lets look at this objectively.

Even if a numerical system existed to correctly pick winning numbers, then the more people that used the same formula to get exactly the same number sequence would dilute the value of the prize. (This humorously happened in the movie Bruce Almighty). On the other hand, mathematics is always the truth because numbers are not capable of falsehood. Im reminded of a very short science fiction story I read about all the computers being finally linked together to answer the question “Is there a God?” And the amazing computer answered, “Now there is.”

So here is my thinking on this articles topic of how to pick which winning lottery system to buy.

Either try both together, or use neither.
The best chance of winning a big lottery jackpot is with the law of attraction: of that I am certain. But your best way of gaining the degree of certainty required to initiate the law of attraction, is to have something tangible and believable like a proven mathematical lottery winning formula working for you. For the optimum chance of winning a lottery jackpot you would be using the law of attraction to get it and the mathematical formula can focus your mind to do it.

The universe is not random and almost nothing in it is truly random either. Something tips every balance and why any given number comes up in a lottery winning result has been predetermined.

I said either use both the law of attraction lottery program and employ the math professors lottery winning formula, or to employ neither. Ill rephrase it a bit.

Criminal Law Lawyers Reno

Reno Nevada has one of the strictest laws with regards to criminal issues. Criminal cases such as driving under the influence, traffic ticket, felonies, misdemeanors, drug trafficking, murder and so on are handled with all seriousness in this state. Criminal cases related to driving are even more serious than you can ever think of. There are many odd or negative conditions related to them. Basically, one can lose his driver’s license because of such case as driving while intoxicated (DWI) and traffic defense.
Your freedom is most essential in the world today. When you lose your license, you simply lost your freedom. This is because you will not be able to go about wherever you want at any point in time. When charged with such criminal case as traffic ticket or DWI, you only have 15 days to defend yourself or your license can be suspended. The decision is yours to make on which law professional to employ for the service. The best decision is to choose a Hotchkin Law lawyer who has lots of experiences in the field. An experienced lawyer will be able to defend you aggressively before the court of law and ultimately ensure that your license cum freedom is not suspended.
Hotchkin Law is the number one legal professional company to choose in Reno when faced with criminal cases. The professionals here have many years of experiences in handling different kinds of criminal matters and cases. These experiences would be invaluable to you and will aid you to win the case with ease. Lee Hotchkin has served as a Reno DWI lawyer for many people charged of driving while intoxicated offense and has helped them in obtaining their freedoms.
Aggressiveness is one virtue which every professional lawyer should possess to give him an edge over others in the field. The professionals here would defend you with all aggression and ultimately ensure your victory. These professionals know every law as regards criminal issues in the Washoe County and also other surrounding regions and would fight to the last so as to ensure that you are totally set free. You can hire Hotchkin Law when facing issues such relating to reckless driving, driving while not having an insurance coverage, driving irrespective of an expired ticket. The services rendered here are targeted at ensuring that your charges are either cut down as low as possible or even dismissed.
The law firm can also help you in other services besides criminal issues. Hotchkin Law can help you with family cases, divorce, child custody and similar other family issues. The professionals would stand by you and ensure that your success is guaranteed in whatever case it is. Being charged to the law court is not the end of your story; however the action you take at this point goes a long way to determine your fate and what happens to your freedom and license. This is the point when you need the Reno criminal lawyer.

Jessica Kirk Professional Lawyer

Dedication to the practice of family law has helped lawyer Jessica Kirk build a solid reputation as a divorce lawyer. Her compassionate and knowledgeable approach to the issues of divorce has helped her clients successfully resolve many of the associated issues, such as child custody, alimony, and division of property. She has represented both men and women in divorce cases and along with her partners at The Crittenden Law Firm in Birmingham, Alabama she uses her experience and the firms dedication to resolving family issues to provide expert service.

As a graduate of the University of Alabama Law School and a member of such organizations as the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, lawyer Jessica Kirk approaches her work with dedication and integrity. Her divorce clients receive not only expert legal representation, but solid guidance through every step of the process.

About the University of Alabama Law School:

Throughout history, the laws for combating piracy became a key building block for todays international legal system. Alabama Laws Dean Kenneth C. Randall surveys the unique, historical relationship between piracy and international law during NPRs special report, “An Old Scourge, Piracy, Is New Again,” on Monday, May 4.

Since 1994, Alabama has had a law in place requiring all convicted felons to submit a DNA sample. But that could soon change. A bill currently making its way through the state legislature would allow for a DNA sample to be taken from everyone arrested and charged with a felony or sexual offense after October 2010. David Patton, assistant professor and director of Alabama Laws Criminal Defense Clinic, speaks with Alabama Public Radio about potential pitfalls should this bill become law in the Wednesday, May 6 story, “Making It Legal To Take DNA From Felony Arrestees In Ala.”

The Career Services Office reported 97.4% of Alabama Laws 2008 graduates as employed within 9 months of graduation. This is the 13th consecutive year that the Law School has had its employment rate above 95%. Also, the number of employers who visited Alabamas campus last Fall to conduct jobs interviews with our law students increased by over 20%.

Podcasts are now available from the February 27, 2009 Law, Knowledge & Imagination symposium titled, “Speech and Silence in American Law.” Cambridge University Press will be publishing the papers in this symposium as well as those in UA Laws previous forum held in October 2008 titled, “Sovereignty, Emergency and Legality.”

The Chief Justice of the United States, the Honorable John G. Roberts, has committed to present UA Laws Albritton Lecture in 2010. Justice Clarence Thomas will give this same lecture in fall 2009, which will mark the second time he has spoken to Alabamas law students. The Law School was honored to welcome Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin, of the Supreme Court of Canada, to Tuscaloosa on March 9 to present the spring 2009 Albritton Lecture.

Throughout history, the laws for combating piracy became a key building block for todays international legal system. Alabama Laws Dean Kenneth C. Randall surveys the unique, historical relationship between piracy and international law during NPRs special report, “An Old Scourge, Piracy, Is New Again,” on Monday, May 4.

Since 1994, Alabama has had a law in place requiring all convicted felons to submit a DNA sample. But that could soon change. A bill currently making its way through the state legislature would allow for a DNA sample to be taken from everyone arrested and charged with a felony or sexual offense after October 2010. David Patton, assistant professor and director of Alabama Laws Criminal Defense Clinic, speaks with Alabama Public Radio about potential pitfalls should this bill become law in the Wednesday, May 6 story, “Making It Legal To Take DNA From Felony Arrestees In Ala.”

Becoming A Self-employed Entrepreneur The Netherlands

Registration in the Dutch trade register is compulsory for every company and every legal entity, including ‘freelance’ and ‘zzp’ (‘zelfstandige zonder personeel’ or self-employed without staff).

When you have decided to start your own business a new world is opening up, with a wide variety of possibilities. You could open a shop or start your own consultancy firm; become a full-time or a part-time entrepreneur. Clients may wish to hire you for advice or construction work.
Before plucking up which is planted, there is a time to plant. In other words: you will have to be prepared to tackle challenges as well – either as a provider of services or products, as a self-employed entrepreneur, a sole trader, an independent contractor, or as a freelancer or so-called “ZZP-er”.

The risky side of freedom and independence

Whether you offer services or products: you will do so at your own risk, expense and with full responsibility towards third parties. As well as this, being self-employed entails certain obligations, such as paying taxes and VAT and keeping records of your business activities. Preparing well is the best way to start. You are definitely not on your own; the Dutch business world offers plenty of competent assistance.

Starting point

Before you visit the Chamber of Commerce to register your enterprise, you should have considered the following:

* a permit to start a business in the Netherlands
* a business plan
* legal form and trade name of your enterprise
* taxation and necessary insurance
* business location, commercial lease
* a VAR’-statement from the Tax Administration, declaring you as a self-employed entrepreneur

Starting your own business

If you do not have the Dutch nationality, and want to start a business in the Netherlands, you will have to comply with particular IND (Immigratie en Naturalisatie Dienst, the Dutch immigration authorities) formalities. Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND (for almost all EU nationals) please do so all the same, as it may come in quite handy for other purposes.

The Dutch Chambers of Commerce are incorporated under public law and, as such, target their services at Dutch businesses across all sectors.

Dutch immigration authorities

The legal form of your enterprise makes no difference to the applicability of the rules by the Dutch immigration authorities: whether it is a one-man business, a Dutch private limited (BV), or a branch-office of a foreign company. The rules do not differ either whether you start an enterprise shortly after arriving in the Netherlands, or after having been employed in the Netherlands for some time. However, rules and formalities do differ broadly speaking for EU nationals and non-EU nationals. Please check also the IND Residence Wizard

EU, EEA and Swiss nationals

Nationals of one of the EU Member States, the EEA (European Economic Area), or a Swiss citizen, are free to live and work on a self-employed basis in the Netherlands and do not need an entry visa or a residence permit.

Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND, do so all the same, as it may come in handy in the future. For instance, when asked for proof of registration on taking out Dutch public healthcare insurance, a healthcare, housing or childcare allowance, a mortgage, or a phone subscription. Registration is free of charge. If you intend to stay over four months, you are always required to register at your local municipality. The expatdesk will help you out here.

Working on a self-employed basis when a EU, EEA and Swiss national

There are no specific IND formalities that have to be fulfilled for nationals of these states.

Different rules apply for citizens of Bulgaria or Romania as long as restrictions on the Dutch labour market remain in force. Nationals of these countries are advised to apply for a residence permit, which will be useful in a number of situations. The procedure is called “Application for assessment under the EU community law (proof of lawful residence)”.

Nationals of non-EU and non-EEA countries

If you are not a national of an EU or EEA country and not Swiss, you will need to apply for a residence permit in case you stay longer than three months in the Netherlands. A residence permit can be obtained from the IND.

If you are a national of a country subject to the Dutch visa requirement for more than three months’ stay, you will have to apply for a special visa: a provisional residence permit, an MVV (Machtiging Voorlopig Verblijf).

Working on a self-employed basis as national of non-EU / non-EEA country and non-Swiss
In this case you will have to meet several economic criteria before starting an enterprise in the Netherlands:

* You are qualified to run the business in question.
* You have a business plan.
* Your business serves an essential Dutch interest, i.e. “added value” for the Netherlands.

The IND does not weigh these criteria itself; the Ministry of Economic Affairs is requested to review your situation and to decide whether the business you intend to run will be economically interesting. If this turns out not to be the case, you cannot start your own business in the Netherlands.

Review of economic added value

* a permit to start a business in the Netherlands
* a business plan
* legal form and trade name of your enterprise
* taxation and necessary insurance
* business location, commercial lease
* a VAR’-statement from the Tax Administration, declaring you as a self-employed entrepreneur

Starting your own business

If you do not have the Dutch nationality, and want to start a business in the Netherlands, you will have to comply with particular IND (Immigratie en Naturalisatie Dienst, the Dutch immigration authorities) formalities. Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND (for almost all EU nationals) please do so all the same, as it may come in quite handy for other purposes.

The Dutch Chambers of Commerce are incorporated under public law and, as such, target their services at Dutch businesses across all sectors.

Dutch immigration authorities

The legal form of your enterprise makes no difference to the applicability of the rules by the Dutch immigration authorities: whether it is a one-man business, a Dutch private limited (BV), or a branch-office of a foreign company. The rules do not differ either whether you start an enterprise shortly after arriving in the Netherlands, or after having been employed in the Netherlands for some time. However, rules and formalities do differ broadly speaking for EU nationals and non-EU nationals. Please check also the IND Residence Wizard

EU, EEA and Swiss nationals

Nationals of one of the EU Member States, the EEA (European Economic Area), or a Swiss citizen, are free to live and work on a self-employed basis in the Netherlands and do not need an entry visa or a residence permit.

Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND, do so all the same, as it may come in handy in the future. For instance, when asked for proof of registration on taking out Dutch public healthcare insurance, a healthcare, housing or childcare allowance, a mortgage, or a phone subscription. Registration is free of charge. If you intend to stay over four months, you are always required to register at your local municipality. The expatdesk will help you out here.

Working on a self-employed basis when a EU, EEA and Swiss national

There are no specific IND formalities that have to be fulfilled for nationals of these states.

Different rules apply for citizens of Bulgaria or Romania as long as restrictions on the Dutch labour market remain in force. Nationals of these countries are advised to apply for a residence permit, which will be useful in a number of situations. The procedure is called “Application for assessment under the EU community law (proof of lawful residence)”.

Nationals of non-EU and non-EEA countries

If you are not a national of an EU or EEA country and not Swiss, you will need to apply for a residence permit in case you stay longer than three months in the Netherlands. A residence permit can be obtained from the IND.

If you are a national of a country subject to the Dutch visa requirement for more than three months’ stay, you will have to apply for a special visa: a provisional residence permit, an MVV (Machtiging Voorlopig Verblijf).

Working on a self-employed basis as national of non-EU / non-EEA country and non-Swiss
In this case you will have to meet several economic criteria before starting an enterprise in the Netherlands:

* You are qualified to run the business in question.
* You have a business plan.
* Your business serves an essential Dutch interest, i.e. “added value” for the Netherlands.

The IND does not weigh these criteria itself; the Ministry of Economic Affairs is requested to review your situation and to decide whether the business you intend to run will be economically interesting. If this turns out not to be the case, you cannot start your own business in the Netherlands.

Review of economic added value
The Ministry of Economic Affairs awards points for each criterion. You will need a minimum of 30 points for each criterion (total number for all criteria: 300).

The scoring system consists of three parts:

a) Personal experience (education, experience as a self-employed person, working experience);
b) Business plan (market analysis, product/service, price, organisation, financing);
c) Material economic purpose for the Netherlands (innovative, job creation, investments).

You should always contact the IND to find out about the procedure involved in testing the economic interest of the enterprise you intend to start. For nationals of some countries, for example Turkey, special rules apply on the basis of treaties between the EU and these countries. And when you are from the United States of America, it is important to know there is the so-called Nederland-Amerikaans’ vriendschapsverdrag’.

Taking your business from abroad

The Dutch comparative companies Act recognises all foreign legal entities except businesses owned by one man or one woman. If you run a one-person business in your country of origin and you can prove this, for example by submitting a copy of registration in a commercial register in that country, you can bring this enterprise to the Netherlands and have it registered at the Chamber of Commerce as a Dutch one-man or -woman business.

Other legal foreign entities or foreign business forms are simply registered as a foreign legal entity with commercial activities.

Please note that you will still have to comply with the IND residency rules

Starting a branch office in the Netherlands

There is a question of a branch when long-lasting business operations, which form part of the foreign enterprise, are (being) conducted in the Netherlands. A branch can be: a sales office or a production company, but also a representative office. It does not have an independent legal form, but is a part of the foreign enterprise.

Dutch law recognises foreign legal entities. In other words: the foreign legal entity wishing to start activities in the Netherlands needs not be converted into a Dutch legal form.

A business plan is essential

No matter small or big the business is, a business plan will help you identify areas of strengths and weaknesses.

Banks require a business plan when you take out a loan. Even if you do not need the latter, and financing your enterprise is not a problem, a business plan will definitely help you understand the impact of starting a business. Submitting a business plan is also one of the criteria set for non-EU and non-EEA nationals to be allowed to start their own enterprise in the Netherlands.

Get started: Write the plan yourself

Crucial questions you should ask are:

* Which legal form will best suit the enterprise?
* Which products or services will you offer?
* Who will be your clients?
* Promotional activities to get contracts?
* How to optimize visibility to your target group?
* Which prices and fees?
* Financial plan (available budgets, expected turnover, investments)?
* Which insurances do you need?
* Permits and/or licences required?
* Administrational organisation, which form?
* What should be included in your General Terms and Conditions if applicable?

Formats

Business plan formats can be obtained from various private parties that specialise in supporting starters. Just surf the internet. Small business planner at http://www.sba.gov/ is a useful site.

Employment law issue: employed or self-employed?

If you go freelance, you should pay extra attention to your situation, because the term ‘freelancer’ is not a definition recognized by law. Freelancers operate somewhere in between being self-employed and being in paid employment.

As an independent entrepreneur you pay taxes and contributions yourself, and you are not entitled to rights employers are: minimum wage, paid holidays, a holiday allowance, statutory safeguards against dismissal and a statutory notice period.

In order to designate the employment relationship while starting your business, it is important to consider different contracts and apply for a Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR) at the Tax Administration.

Employment on the basis of a contract and implied employment

Regardless of the title chosen for the contract with your client, it is considered an employment contract if the following criteria are met:

* your remuneration for the work performed can be seen as wages;
* there is an obligation to do the work yourself: you cannot send someone else to do the job for you. Having to be available for specific work, e.g. on-call service, will also be considered as work performed in employment;
* a relationship of authority: the employer can determine where, when and how the work should be carried out. This relation also exists if the work you do is an essential element in the employer’s business operations or if the employer’s profitability is at risk without you.

If the working relation does not show all characteristics of a “proper” employment relation, it may still be seen as one. This is called a notional employment relationship: although the employment relation has not been established explicitly, there is an implicit employer-employee relation. Consequently, the fee you charge is seen as wage, so, the employer will have to deduct taxes from your wages and pay national insurance and employee insurance contributions.

A notional employment relation exists if:

* you work for a client project for at least at two days a week;
* you earn more than 40% of the minimum wages for the project a week;
* the relation with the client lasts more than 30 days; a new contract within one month after the termination of the first contract is seen as continuation of the previous contract.

A notional employment does not exist if actual and practical independence can be proven, for which a VAR can be instrumental.

Commercial contracts

As a self-employed entrepreneur you or your client can initiate to formalise the contractor-client relation by entering into a commercial contract. Parties should always insist on putting down the arrangements agreed upon.
There are two types of commercial contracts:
1. Service agreement – Under this type of contract you are obliged to perform to the best of your ability, committing yourself to do your client’s work without being employed by him. The work is usually classified as services’.
2. Contractor agreement – Under this type of contract you have a specific target obligation. You commit yourself to produce a concrete, tangible object at a certain price.

Criteria for legal independence: Actual circumstances are decisive here. An official statement signed by client and yourself that the contract is a commercial one is helpful proof. Criteria are:

* the degree of independence and absence of supervision/authority;
* permanence;
* pursuit of profit;
* clientele.

Not just these criteria, but their interconnection especially plays a decisive role.

De Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR)

In order to designate the employment relationship you can apply for a Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR) at the Tax Administration. The VAR is an official statement. Based upon the applicant’s information the Tax Administration will define income as:

* Income earned in employment: the freelancer will have a VAR income.
* Income earned from other proceedings: the freelancer will have a VAR-row.
* Profit from enterprise: the freelancer will have a VAR-wuo.
* Partnership’s own risk and account: the freelancer will have a VAR-dga.

VAR-income and -row: employed or not?

With a view to the VAR-income and row, the employer will have to define and check whether he should pay income tax and employees insurance premiums, based upon the existence of an employment contract or otherwise. Explanatory assistance but no definite answer! – can be found at the website of the Ministry of Finance. The Tax Administration may conclude differently.

VAR-wuo and dga: certainty in advance

Only VAR-wuo or -dga supply the employer beforehand with complete financial certainty provided he meets the following conditions:

* The freelancer’s activities should be similar to the VAR’s description. So, the freelancer is not entitled to carry out IT work if the VAR denotes carpentry.
* The freelancer is on the job during the validity of the VAR (1 calendar year).
* The VAR should be the authentic original.
* The employer should determine the freelancer’s identity on the basis of a valid proof of identity (not driver’s licence). Copies of the VAR and proof of identity should be kept in the administration for seven years.

Having acted this way, the employer has a solid defence in case the Tax Administration or UWV may reach another verdict afterwards. So, it may be wise for both freelancers and employers to object against a VAR-income or -row.

VAR application

Bearing in mind the utmost importance of the VAR-outcome, it is obviously important to carefully fill out the VAR-form. Only the freelancer him/herself is allowed to apply for a Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR); the employer is not entitled to do this. A directeur-groot aandeelhouder (DGA) should apply for a VAR in case of external consultancy.

The Tax Administration provides a digital VAR application form; to which you will get a reply within 8 weeks. If additional information is needed, the Tax Administration will contact the applicant.

Please note the following when filling out the form: The Tax Administration considers request as a total, coherently, and takes the activities into account. If not all answers are favourable it does not necessarily mean that no VAR-wuo will be given. For example: an interim manager with two or more employers can still be entitled to a VAR-wuo.

The freelancer should write down reasonable expectations. If, however, the actual situation afterwards turns out to have been differently, this will not have any consequences as long as the deviation is within normal risk of enterprise limits. For example, the freelancer expected to have 3 or more employers, but due to a recession this turned out differently.

The freelancer has to fill out the form to the best of his knowledge and should not deliberately misrepresent the state of affairs. If this should afterwards be proven to have been the case, the Tax Administration will recover the indebted taxes and premiums from the freelancer.

Some of the questions need a yes’ or no’ only; choose the nearest suitable.

Relation employer/former employer

As a part-time independent entrepreneur / part-time employee you could get involved in a conflict of interest with your (former) employer. If you intend to provide services, comparable to the ones he provides, you better ask his permission/advice to run your own business.

Starting a business as a full-time independent entrepreneur you should be aware of a possible conflict of interests as well. You probably signed a non-competition clause within your employment contract that remains valid after termination of employment. In any case it is wise to contact/consult your (former) employer of your intentions.

Legal forms and registration of an enterprise

The Chambers of Commerce can answer your questions about the legal environment of your business. Seminars and other regular services are available.

The majority of starting entrepreneurs either choose a one-man business or a general partnership as the legal form for their business, according to their preference on doing business by themselves or in cooperation with others.

In order to accommodate the starting entrepreneur or professional, Dutch law recognizes various legal forms, such as a one-man business, a private limited company (BV), a partnership or a limited partnership. The main issues at stake are the matter of liability if your enterprise should run up debts, and which tax regime applies.

One-person business

One-person business (lit. one-man in Dutch: eenmanzak) is also referred to as sole trader or sole proprietorship or independent contractor.

If you start a one-person business you will be the fully independent founder and owner. More than one person may work in a one-person business, but there can only be one owner. A one-person business can also employ personnel.

Setting up

You can establish a one-person business without a notarial deed. Registration in the Trade Register is mandatory. As a private individual you can only register one one-man business. However, you can have more than one trade name and carry out various business activities under different trade names. These activities can be carried out at the same or at another address, as a branch office of the one-man business.

Liability

As the owner of a one-person business you are responsible for everything concerning your enterprise; for every legal act and all its assets and liabilities. No distinction is made between private and business property. Thus, business creditors can seek recovery from your private property and private creditors from your business property. If your one-man business goes bankrupt, you yourself go bankrupt as well.

If the owner of a one-person business should be married in a community of property regime, the creditors may also lay claim to the partner’s property. Partner liability can be avoided by a prenuptial or a postnuptial agreement drafted by a civil-law notary. However, since partners are usually requested to co-sign when taking a loan, the agreement may not offer the protection expected. A civil-law notary can provide more information.

Taxes and social security

The profit made in a one-person business is taxed in box 1 income tax. If the Tax Administration fully considers you an entrepreneur, you are entitled to tax allowances such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance.

The owner of a one-person business cannot claim social benefits under the Sickness Benefits Act, the Work and Income Act and the Unemployment Insurance Act. Therefore, it is advisable to take out insurances to cover these risks. You will qualify for the following national insurance schemes:

* General Old Age Pensions Act
* -Surviving Dependants Act
* Exceptional Medical Expenses Act
* General Child Benefit Act

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

With a one-man business no distinction is made between private and business. If you die, both business and private property will fall into your heirs’ estate. You will need to make provisions to guarantee your business’ continuity. A tax consultant could provide more details.

B. General partnership, the “VOF”

A general partnership is a form of cooperation in which you run a business with one or more business partners. You and your partner(s) are the associates or members of the general partnership. One of the characteristics of this legal form is that each partner contributes something to the business: capital, goods, efforts (work) and/or goodwill.

Setting up

A partnership contract is not a statutory requirement for the formation of a general partnership, but it is, of course, advisable to put down in writing what you and your business partner(s) have agreed upon. A partnership contract could arrange the following matters:

* name of the general partnership;
* objective;
* contributions by partners in capital, knowhow, goodwill, assets and efforts (work);
* distribution of profits and offset of loss;
* allocation of powers;
* arrangements in case of illness;
* arrangements for a partner’s days off/ holiday.

Liability

An important characteristic of the general partnership is the joint and separate liability of the partners. Each partner can be held fully liable – including private property – if the general partnership fails to meet its obligations, even if these obligations were entered into by another, authorised partner. Creditors of the partnership may seek recovery from your business property and your private property and the property of the other partner(s). Restrictions agreed upon in the partners’ authority have to be officially registered in order to gain legal effectiveness towards third parties.

The general partnership usually has separate capital’, i.e. the business capital contributed by the partners, which is kept apart from their private property and capital. This capital is to be solely used for business purposes. Should one or more creditors seek recovery from the partnership – for instance in the case of bankruptcy – they could do so from the separate capital. If this should be inadequate to pay the partnership’s debts, creditors may seek full recovery from the partners’ private property. If so, you could hold the other partner(s) liable for having failed to meet their obligations, but only after the creditors have been paid. In private matters creditors of partners cannot seek recovery from the partnership’s business assets or the private property of the other partner(s).

Because of this partners’ broad liability it is advisable to have a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement drafted if you are married under a community of property regime. A civil-law notary could provide you with more information.

Taxes and social security

Each partner will pay their own income tax on his profit share. If the Tax Administration sees the individual partner as an entrepreneur, they are entitled to all kinds of tax allowances, such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance.

As far as social security is concerned, the same rules apply for the entrepreneur partner as for the owner of a one-person business.

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Under Dutch law the general partnership ends when one of the partners resigns or dies. In order to secure the continuation of the general partnership, the partners can include a clause in the partnership contract arranging for the other partners to continue the general partnership with or without a new partner or to terminate it.

C. Limited partnership, the “CV”

A limited partnership, the “CV”, is a special type of general partnership (VOF). The difference is that the CV has two types of business partners: general, and limited or sleeping partners. The latter are only financially involved; they cannot act on behalf of the partnership. Besides, the name of a limited partner cannot be used in the trade name of the limited partnership.

Setting up

A partnership contract is no statutory requirement for a limited partnership, but, again, partners better put down the agreements. Apart from the matters mentioned in the VOF, the contract should arrange the distribution of profit between general and limited partners. When registering a limited partnership in the Trade Register, the personal details of the general partners are listed; the details concerning the limited partners are restricted to total number and their contributions in the partnership.

Liability

General partners can be held fully liable if the partnership fails to meet its obligations. Bankruptcy of the limited partnership will automatically lead to the general partners’ bankruptcy (not applicable to limited partners). A limited partner can only be held liable to the maximum sum contributed to the partnership. However, should the limited partner act on behalf of the partnership, he will be seen as a general partner and fully liable, in which case creditors of the partnership can lay claim on his private property as well. Restrictions agreed upon in the partners’ authority have to be officially registered in order to gain legal force towards third parties.

The general partners’ liability in a limited partnership is quite broad, so, if partners are married under a community of property regime they are advised to have a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement drafted. A civil-law notary could provide more information.

Taxes and social security

General partners pay income tax on their share in the profit. If the Tax Administration sees the individual partner as an entrepreneur, they are entitled to various tax allowances, such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance. As far as social security is concerned, the same rules apply to the entrepreneur partner as to the owner of a one-person business. Limited partners, who cannot be held personally liable for the enterprise’s debts, are not seen as entrepreneurs by the Tax Administration.

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Under Dutch law the limited partnership ends when one of the partners resigns or dies. In order to secure the continuation of the limited partnership, the partners can include a clause in the contract arranging for the other partners to continue the partnership with or without a new partner or to terminate it.

D. Professional partnership, the maatschap’

The partnership referred to as maatschap’ under Dutch law differs from the general partnership and the limited partnership in that it is a form of cooperation established by professionals such as doctors, dentist, lawyers, accountants, physiotherapists etc., rather than a cooperation established for the purpose of doing business. The partners are referred to as maten’ instead of partners’. Each maat’ contributes personal efforts, capital and/or assets. The purpose is to share the income earned on the one hand and the expenses incurred on the other.
Setting up a professional partnership

A partnership contract is no statutory requirement for the formation of a professional partnership, but partners better lay down their agreements with the other professionals in a partnership contract. This partnership contract could arrange the following matters:

* contributions made by the partners;
* distribution of profits, pro rata each partner’s contribution – distributing all profit to one partner is not allowed;
* allocation of powers – each partner is entitled to perform management acts, unless agreed upon otherwise; as of 1 July 2008 the professional partnership has to register in the Trade Register. This does not apply to partnerships that only act internally, such as a partnership in which costs are pooled.

Liability

Each authorised partner can enter into a contract, thus binding the partnership: all partners. Each partner can be held liable for an equal part. If a partner should act beyond his authorization, the other partners will in principle not be held liable: the partner in question is the only partner that has bound himself. A professional partnership has no separate capital’ from the private assets of the partners. Creditors having a claim on the partnership can only seek recovery for equal parts from the individual partners; these creditors do not rank above creditors who have a claim on the private assets of a partner. To a married partner the same reservations apply as to the general partners in general partnerships and limited partnerships. They are advised to have a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement drafted. A civil-law notary could provide more information.

Taxes and social security
Each partner pays income tax on his profit share. If the Tax Administration sees the individual partner as an entrepreneur, he is entitled to various tax allowances, such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance. Regarding social security the same rules apply to the entrepreneur partner as to the owner of a one-man business

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Under Dutch law the professional partnership ends when one of the partners resigns or dies. In order to secure the continuation of the partnership, the partners can include a clause in the contract arranging for the other partners to continue the partnership with or without a new partner or to terminate it.

E. Private company with limited liability, BV’

In contrast to the legal forms described above – enterprises run by natural persons – the private limited is a legal person: a person having rights and obligations, just like a natural person. The natural person who has incorporated the private limited cannot be held liable, in principle, for the debts incurred by the private limited. The BV itself is seen as the entrepreneur, whereas the natural person who is appointed director merely acts on behalf of the BV and cannot be held personally liable for his acts. A private limited company can be incorporated by one person a sole shareholder BV or by more persons. The capital of a private limited is divided in shares.

Incorporating

This involves a number of statutory requirements, most important of which:
Incorporation takes place through a notarial deed. This should include the articles of association of the company. The civil-law notary will check the legal contents of the articles.
A certificate of no-objection from the Ministry of Justice must be submitted before the incorporation can be effected. The Ministry checks whether the person incorporating the company has ever been involved in bankruptcy proceedings or fraud cases.

The incorporation of a BV requires a minimum capital of EUR 18,000 (cash or in kind) in the private limited.

Liability

The shareholder’s liability is limited to the total sum of his participation. Since the BV is a legal person, having its own independent rights and obligations, the persons involved – directors and supervisors – cannot be held liable for the debt of the company. In other words: the company’s creditors can never seek recovery from the private assets of these officers. However, a company director or officer may be held liable as a private person if he has acted negligently or culpably. If they are responsible for the company’s bankruptcy because of wrongful or fraudulent behaviour in the company’s policy, creditors of the company may file a claim against them.

In the formation phase of the company, a director may be liable for the company’s acts. This liability ends as soon as the legal person is incorporated and the acts are confirmed by the company. As long as the company has not been registered in the Trade Register, directors’ and officers’ liability continues. In practice, limited liability often does not apply because banks require the director and principal shareholder of the company to co-sign for loans taken out on behalf of the BV.

Taxes and social security

The private limited pays corporation tax also referred to as company income tax on the profits earned. The BV’s director and shareholder are employed by the BV His eligibility for social security under the Dutch social security laws depends on the relation of authority between himself and the private limited. A relation of authority is considered not to exist if:

* the director, possibly with his or her spouse, can cast more than 50% of the votes in the shareholders’ meeting;
* two thirds or more of the shares are held by the director and/or close relatives up to the third degree;
* the director cannot be dismissed against their will.

Without a relation of authority, the director and shareholder cannot rely on the social security insurances. He will have to take out his own insurances; to him the same rules apply as to the owner of a one-person business.

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Continuation of the company is secured by the fact that the BV is a legal person that exists independently from the persons having incorporated or managing the private limited. When the director dies, the continuation of the enterprise is not at risk, viz. the enterprise is run by the BV and a new director will have to be appointed.

A private limited can be sold in two different ways:

* BV’s shares are sold;
* BV’s enterprise (machines, inventory, stocks, etc.) is sold.

If the shares are sold, the proceeds are subject to income tax (box 2) if the shareholder has a substantial interest (holder of a minimum of 5% of the shares).

If the enterprise is sold, the BV will have to pay corporation tax on the profit or book profit on the sale. If the shareholder of the BV selling the enterprise is a BV itself, the structure is referred to as a holding – advantage of which: the holding will in principle have to pay taxes on the proceeds.

Registration of your enterprise

Before you are allowed to start your business operations, you have to register your enterprise in the Dutch Trade Register, which is administered by the Chambers of Commerce. Registrations in the Trade Register are public; everyone can check whether a particular person is authorised to act on behalf of an enterprise and which legal form it has: a one-man business, a partnership or a private or public limited.

The Chamber of Commerce could run a trade name investigation for you to make sure that the selected trade name does not infringe the rights of other enterprises. This trade name investigation is not free of charge.

Holland Gateway (the cooperation of the Netherlands Chambers of Commerce, Ministry of Economic Affairs and other official institutions) is located at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport. This bureau promotes the ease of doing business in the Netherlands.

How to register your enterprise

Registration requirements

Once you have decided upon your business’ legal form, you can have your enterprise registered at the local Chamber of Commerce. Registration should take place within a period of one week preceding, and one week following the actual commencement of business activities.

Without registration in the GBA, you will need to submit authenticated proof of your residential address abroad. The person registering the business has to submit a valid proof of identity, which document has to be personally submitted at the Chamber of Commerce. The following documents are accepted as valid IDs:

* a valid travel document (passport or European ID card);
* a valid Dutch driving licence (non-Dutch driving licence not accepted);
* a residence permit issued by the IND;
* a Dutch refugee passport
* a Dutch aliens passport

If you do not start your business at your home address but at a location you have e.g. rented, you will also be requested to show the lease to confirm the business address.

Once the registration has been completed, you will be given a unique eight-figure registration number. This KvK number should be referred to on all your outgoing mail. Free of charge, you will receive an extract of your registration, a KvK-uittreksel'(excerpt).

Who can register the enterprise

When an enterprise is registered at the Chamber of Commerce, it is of the utmost importance that the registration forms which are submitted have been signed by the right person. Depending on the legal form of the enterprise, the forms can be registered in the Trade Register by:

* the owner of the one-man business (registration of a one-man business),
* the partners (registration of a general partnership, VOF, and a professional partnership, maatschap’)
* or the general partners (registration of a limited partnership, CV’)
* If the enterprise is a legal person, a BV, the civil-law notary will usually see to the registration formalities.

The persons who should register the enterprise and sign the registration forms can also be held responsible in the event an enterprise is not registered.

In special circumstances other persons may be authorized and/or obliged to see to the registration of an enterprise. The Chamber of Commerce can advise you on these circumstances.

Registration forms

The registration forms can be downloaded from the Chamber of Commerce website. As a statutory requirement, all forms are in Dutch and have to be completed in Dutch. Translations in English of forms 6, 11 and 13 are available to assist you while filling in the Dutch form to be handed in.
Registration is not free of charge. When you register a business, a fee will be due for the calendar year the enterprise is registered in. After that initial year, an annual fee will be charged in the first quarter of each year. The total sum of this contribution depends on the legal form.

After registration

Once the enterprise has been registered, it is the owner or partner’s responsibility to keep the information up-to-date. With a BV the manager authorised to act on behalf of the BV is responsible.

Permits and Licences

Most business activities can be performed without any permits or licences, but for some activities, like catering business, transport or taxi firm, you do need a licence. And an environmental permit may be required if your products or business operations negatively affect the environment. Permits and licences can be applied for at the municipality or at the provincial authorities.

Check how you can use your degree or diploma for your business in the Netherlands. International Credential Evaluation: http://www.idw.nl/international-credential-evaluation.html

Some sectors require registration with an industry board or a product board. Registration is a statutory requirement, based on the Act on Business Organisations. An industry board is a kind of interest group for a specific sector. The same applies to a product board, which includes all enterprises in a production chain, from producers of raw material to manufacturers of end products.

Termination / dissolution of the enterprise

When transferring or selling your company, you will have to comply with a number of rules and regulations. You should also enter information about the sale into the Trade Register and reach a settlement with the Tax and Customs Administration. A business transfer within the family involves several other tax aspects.

Expatica will publish Becoming a self-employed entrepreneur the Netherlands (part 1) on Sunday 27 February.

Chambers of Commerce
The Dutch Chambers of Commerce provide information on starting a business, legal forms, registration in the trade register, international trade etc. We have accumulated knowledge, contacts and partnerships, which makes it the essential reference point for every firm doing or seeking to do business.

Drop by for specific information
Apart from general information, the Chambers of Commerce will be glad to provide you with further details regarding your specific position: either at the start of your business or while running it.

If you are located and/or interested in the Region Amsterdam:
Do call 020-5314684 for a consultation with one of our specialists of the Bedrijfsvoorlichting department.

Why You Need Legal Assist

We are likely to require legal help at least once a yr, yet most of us do not actively look for legal assist.

This is borne out of data from a survey conducted by Leo J. Shapiro & Associates, on behalf of the American Bar Association?s Section of Litigation, which shows that close to three quarters of American adults experience some event during a twelve-month period that may need the services of a lawyer. Over half of those who needed an attorney chose not to hire one, and close to 80% of those yet to experience legal problems gave strong indications they might go down the same route.

Why all the doom and gloom? Price is the most sticking point for most consumers. When it comes to hiring a lawyer, hourly fees of $100 up to $1000 are out of reach of most people?s budget. And then comes the trepidation of searching for a good attorney and the right service: there is a lot of uncertainty and confusion as what a lawyer will do, and how to tell the good from the bad.

A legal plan may solve these problems and change the way you think of legal services. Thanks to this arrangement, you can now talk to a lawyer whenever you have a problem, without fear this will leave you out of pocket. In fact, you don?t even require to be embroiled in a legal problem to get legal advice: just pick up the phone, call your attorney and get the necessary legal advice susceptible of resolving any potential problems ?with professional legal advice and follow-up, you can prevent ninety percent of your legal questions becoming legal problems. Basic services such as the drafting of your will, review of sample health contracts and writing letters on your behalf are handled at no cost to you. If you want further coverage to include family problems, such as a divorce or custody of children, and any legal representation in court, then you simply pay a premium and get more inclusive coverage.

Even if your plan doesn?t cover complex legal matters, it can still save you money on those sky-high attorney fees. Discounts of up to 20% are offered on hourly and flat rates. Ultimately, it?s not all down to how much you can save. Having an attorney readily available at all times gives you peace of mind, in the knowledge that there is someone you can use on retainer for advice and help on anything of legal nature.

Why Everyone Needs A Durable Power Of Attorney

It is important for all adults to have a Durable Power Of Attorney. Here is an introduction to this important document.

A “Power of Attorney” is a legal document in which one person gives another person the power to act for him, including the power to sign papers for him. The person who is giving the power is called the “principal.” The person who will get the power is referred to as the “Attorney-in-Fact” or “agent.” “Attorney-in-Fact” does not require the person receiving the power to be an attorney. Any adult can be your Attorney-in-Fact, including your spouse, children, or siblings. Broad powers are given to the Attorney-in-Fact in a “General Power of Attorney”. This includes powers to sign checks and contracts, buy and sell real estate, manage bank accounts, and generally do anything the principal can do. The power to do only one or more specific things for a principal, like selling a certain piece of property, is called a “Special Power of Attorney”.

A”Durable” Power of Attorney is one that continues to work even if something happens to the principal that causes him to be unable to handle his own finances. A Power of Attorney must contain these words to be “durable”: “This power of attorney shall not be affected by the disability of the principal.” A “Springing” Power of Attorney only works at the time the principal becomes incapacitated.

Most Powers of Attorney which people have are Durable General Powers of Attorney. That is, they give broad powers to do anything, the powers can be used even when the principal is healthy, and they can be used if the principal becomes incapacitated. However, this cannot be know by the title alone. Some Durable General Powers of Attorney are called “Durable Power of Attorney.” Others are called “General Power of Attorney.” Still others are called “Power of Attorney.” You have to read the actual words of the document to find out whether a Power of Attorney is “general” or “special”, “durable” or not, and “springing” or not.

A Durable Power of Attorney is an important part of every estate plan. The Attorney-in-Fact can do anything necessary to handle an incapacitated principal’s financial affairs, including access to bank accounts, stocks, mutual funds, and real estate. If a person becomes incapacitated and does not have a Durable Power of Attorney, there will be problems with any assets in his or her name. The family members will not be able to withdraw money or pay bills for the incapacitated person. A family member will have to retain a lawyer, appear in court, and petition the court to assign a “conservator” of the incapacitated person’s property. (The conservator used to be called a “guardian.”) After the court officially appoints someone to be the conservator, the appointed conservator will be able to withdraw money, pay bills, and handle other financial matters for the incapacitated person. However, the court will order the conservator to keep careful records of every penny that comes to the incapacitated person and every penny that is spent for the incapacitated person. The conservator will have to go back to court every year, or as often as the court orders. The conservator will have to provide an accounting of all financial activity since the last accounting each time he or she goes back to court. There will be more attorneys fees and costs each time the conservator goes back to court. A good Durable Power of Attorney will easily avoid the expense and hassle of a conservatorship, and allow the Attorney-in-Fact to handle the pricipal’s finances without court supervision, legal fees of an attorney, and having to provide exact accounting.

This written advice was not intended or written to be used, and it cannot be used by any taxpayer, for the purpose of avoiding penalties that may be imposed on the taxpayer. (The foregoing legend has been affixed pursuant to U.S. Treasury Regulations governing tax practice.)

This column is for general information only. The facts of your case may change the advice given. The information in this column should not be relied on without consulting an estate planning specialist.

Basic Information About Israeli Law

The Israeli legal system is based on common law, also known as case law or precedent law, which is based on decisions of courts and judges, but it has some parts of civil law as well.

This means that Israel does not have a formal Constitution, even though it was decided when the State of Israel was founded, that one would be written. In this way, the Israeli laws are similar to the ones in the United Kingdom, but in recent years, the Israeli court system and laws have also been heavily influenced by the laws in the USA and Canada.

The Common Law system was implemented by the British when they were governing Palestine before the independent state was founded, and several things have never been changed since then. Even some older laws, dating back to the Ottoman rule of Palestine, still remain in the Israeli law.
This is why Israeli law can be said to be as diverse as the history of the country itself.

As for the court system, there are several courts in Israel that influence the current laws. The Shalom Court, Beit Mishpat HaShalom in Hebrew, is a smaller court that handles only civil cases, where the disputed amount is less than 2,5 million NIS (New Israeli shekels, the currency of Israel), but it never deals with issues relating to ownership of land or with criminal cases where the sentence could be over 6 years of prison.
The Shalom Courts are based in the towns themselves, and most Israeli towns have one.
The District Court, or the Beit Mishpat Mehozi in Hebrew, deals with civil as well as criminal matters that do not fall under the jurisdiction of the Shalom Courts. It also deals with disputes related to ownership of land. People can also appeal sentences in the Shalom courts to the District Court.
Currently, there are 6 Disctrict Courts in Israel: in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Haifa, Petach Tikva, Beersheva and in Nazareth.
The Israeli Supreme Court, the Beit Mishpat Elyon, mostly deals with appeals from the District Courts, but also hears cases that do not fall under the jurisdiction of the District Courts, including political cases and international cases.
There are also several Labour Tribunals in Israel, that deal with all cases related to labour law, for instance cases between an employee and an employer.
Interestingly enough, Israel also has religious tribunals, and some very specific legal matters, such as cases where marriage and divorce is discussed, and so on, are judged by the religious tribunals. Since the population of Israel is multi-religious, there are several religious tribunals for different religions, including one for the Jewish community, one for the Muslim community, one for the Catholic Christian community, and so on.

Make Legal Document Duplication And Litigation Copying Part Of Your Sop

Part of litigation proceedings is the management, collection, and duplication of papers. Legal document duplication is an important aspect of legal proceedings because privacy policies are of high value for law offices and all parties involved. Any documents gathered before, during, and after any litigation process are scanned, copied, filed, and duplicated so that the entire litigation process goes smoothly.
Legal document duplication is the reproduction of legal files such as lists of evidence, subpoenas, interview transcripts, audio and video recordings, among others. This process is also known as litigation copying. Litigation copying is not like the normal process of reproducing papers. There’s a little more work involved. For instance, each duplicated legal copy has to be properly labeled and stamped so it doesn’t get mixed up with the originals. Law firms usually have their own stamp so they know that the copy is true and legitimate.
Legal scanning is also a standard procedure for litigation copying. Black and white papers, as well as colored graphics and pictures are scanned, labeled, and then indexed so other copies may be given to all parties.
CopyScan is one good example of a legal document duplication company with 10 years of experience. They offer fast copy, legal scanning, and audio/video duplication services for the everyday needs of law offices. CopyScan also uses Scan to File system that allows direct copying of scanned documents into your computer’s registered IP address for quick access to these legal documents. Scan to File is one of the fastest and secure means for legal scanning and duplication available in the software market.
CopyScan also supports attorney services by providing some parts of the litigation process. Litigation services include the legal scanning and duplication of files from the opposing counsel, and CopyScan does just that. Other litigation services include centralized paper depository, imaging, OCR and OWR, manual and auto-coding, and database creation and indexing. You may also ask if they offer opposing counsel services so you don’t have to go to another company for the duplication and delivery of litigation files.
Legal copying and duplication also covers conversion of old format files into newer formats. Cassette tape recordings can be converted to audio CD files and VHS tapes can be converted to digital CD or DVD file formats.
Any kind of document can be duplicated at any time. You can even ask CopyScan to make scan and make copies of large documents like blueprints and land surveys. They also offer X-ray services for medical files and documents that require x-ray copies.
CopyScan is HIPAA compliant so you know all procedures are done based on standard operating procedures. Legal copies cannot be left to non compliant companies because you are sure to risk privacy and security of everyone involved.
A good litigation copying service company should be able to provide fast and immediate service for law firms since most, if not all, need to have legal document duplication everyday. What you need to look for (aside from HIPAA compliance) is the ability for fast copy, digital printing, and systematic indexing standards.

DUI Attorney Your Liberator For DUI Case

Driving not in the conscious state and not able to determine which way and what degree to turn the steering wheel! Driving has always been a cautious and vigilant activity. A slight amount of negligence while driving could lead to serious mishaps. Not just the sufferer but his family as well, suffers equally. To avoid the mishap or accident, you must take stern precaution while partying. If you are aware of the limit, beyond which alcohol consumption could leave you in problematic state. Then you can ask your friends to have a watch on you, asking them to avert you from taking the alcohol beyond that limit. For the alcohol to reach that risky condition, you need to prevent yourself from taking alcohol, beyond that limit.

If in case you and your friends all have drunk heavy, there is no way that can drop you back home. Forget about driving yourself way back home, as it will turn into most dangerous decision. Its better you call for a cab and ride back home. If you are, even though, pretty confident that you can drive back home, all by yourself, you need to drive slowly and take turns in the least speed. Even though you met with an accident and hit a person or a vehicle on the road, it’s certain that you will be charged of DUI offense.

The professional or specialist responsible for freeing you out from the charge is DUI attorney. DUI attorney or lawyer is an expert who knows how to handle the case with expertise. Depending upon the case, they build and develop the strategies. As per the intricacy of the case, they ought to advice and counsel you regarding the case. With DUI being the offensive crimes caused by mostly the youngsters or young adults, it needs to be dealt with intensive caution.

The offenders must not only be charged with the crime and give them harsh punishment, but they should also be counseled by the counselors to help them not deviate from the correct path. DUI is the case which not only destroys the offender’s life, but also the life of the victim. DUI/OWI/OUI is alike offenses which carry the same punishment and penalty. With changing zone and city, the name of the drink driving case name changes. Somewhere it’s known as DUI, somewhere OWI, some OUI, etc. The penalty and punishment also varies with country.