Lexington Law Firm Assessment – Impressive Track Record Of Accomplishment

There continues to be a proliferation of credit repair organizations that offer you to clean up people”s credit reports and improve their credit scores. A few of these organizations are just scams which can be out to get people”s cash with no legitimate plans for fulfilling their far-fetched claims. Other folks charge quite steep fees that outweigh the monetary positive aspects the clients gain from a credit score improvement.

1 credit repair organization that has noticeably maintained its reputation and record of accomplishment is Lexington Law Firm. Lexington continues to be a leader inside the credit repair market because its inception in 1991 in Utah. It has been viewed as the pioneer inside the use of technological innovation and digital solutions for the delivery of its services. The service it gives is not restricted for the dispute of inaccuracies in credit reports, but extends to escalated communication and negotiation with all the clients” creditors and collectors.

Lexington Law Firm maintains a staff of 400 paralegals, agents and personnel, supervised by 22 lawyers, across 16 states. They’ve expert information on all buyer protection laws which has enabled them to devise a programmed approach to a wide range of credit repair difficulties. Inside the year 2010 alone, they have successfully removed 1,297,226 negative products from their clients” credit reports. They have served more than half a million clients in their 19 years of service.

1 reason for the enduring recognition of their service may be the value they give at incredibly cost-effective prices. They present their clients unlimited disputes at a fixed monthly rate which they are able to cancel at any time. On the common, clients experience around 8-9 removals of negative items from their 3 credit reports on the third month of their subscription. Premium services are also supplied that consist of goodwill interventions, debt validation, continuous monitoring of credit reports and identity theft insurance.

Lexington Law provides no cost initial consultation via the telephone or through their Website. The only points potential customers want to deliver them are copies of their credit reports. The client maintains control in the credit repair method by choosing the items he wants to dispute. Lastly, to ensure client satisfaction, Lexington gives a money-back guarantee for its credit repair solutions.

Qatar Law

An extremely unique legislation is used in Qatar. The two main techniques that Qatar Legislation is applied. The very first Law is the classic Legislation which includes the Muslin societal establishing; this is called the Sharia courts (Islamic Courtroom) that implements Sharia Law.

The second form of Law Regulation is the independence of Qatar that has been agreed upon to the Law governing method during 1971 and this Law Regulation is applicable to low-Muslims. This Law generated the roll-out of Adlia courts (civil courts) to fulfill Law Regulation needs in the low-Muslim people residing in Qatar.

Qatar Legal guidelines

Less than Qatars laws, there are 2 Legislation one for the Muslims and the other for low-Muslims. Qatar’s Adlia judge is just not subordinate on the Amir with his fantastic ministers. The job from the Qatar minister for justice is just to supervise rather than to legislate secular laws and regulations that happen to be considered to be a opportunity of your Adila court on its own.

Qatar as being a status includes a territory which is located halfway over the western side coast from the Gulf plus it handles a region of 4,400 sq . kilometers. Qatar main income earner is oil producing Qatar earn the status in the 3rd maximum for each capita revenue worldwide. As centuries have gone and come, Qatars legal system had emerged in three stages which are: tribal Law Regulation (Wasteland Legislation), Sharia Legislation, Modern day Legislation.

Qatar Sharia Legislation

Inside the Sharia Law, there are numerous courts that come with the Petty Sharia Court: This court features a second and first judge. Every court is operate by two judges, the first judge is equipped with jurisdiction more than situations that ought to be concluded rapidly. The offences tried in this article consist of; theft, assaults and felony. The second courtroom is required together with the job of handling private reputation including divorce, marriages and contracts between folks.

Grand Sharia Judge: This court is headed from a key assess who functions as the director of your presidium of Sharia courts and also spiritual affairs. A legal court also operates being an appellate courtroom for the Petty Sharia along with the judge has authority more than major criminal cases that include: robbery with homicide and violence. This judge also works with problems pertaining inheritance in addition to household challenge and never forgetting that the judge relates to issues in regards to land and property quarrels amid Muslims.

The court can also be mandated with all the project of performing being a trustee for your residence of minors and persons of your reduced potential. In acquiescence to the Law of your terrain, the legal court concerns Fatwas on numerous concerns and its decisions are ultimate and can never be overturned.

Qatar Emir Decrees

Emir signifies a commander or even a prince; this can be a headline of higher business office which is used all over the Muslim community. An Emir is known as higher ranking Sheikhs, nonetheless in monarchic claims, this word can also be put after Princes with Emirate becoming comparable to a sovereign princedom.

Of Chieftain also known as commander. That is the very first meaning of Emir. This position can be used for any specific group of people plus it was utilized for rulers and governors whop more than see smaller states. This headline was also put with the Famous Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

Qatar Solutions

The Qatar Global Judge was formally referred to as the Commercial and Civil Courtroom from the Qatar Economic Middle which was put in place under the Qatar resolution in the year 2009 and also this work was began like a tactical factor to draw in international business and monetary solutions into Qatar.

The judges judgment on the the courtroom are acknowledged to have substantial connection with resolving complicated disputes and also the judges are known to settle matters independently without any disturbance from your state.

Use Mental Photography To Get Astounding Results With The Law Of Attraction

What is Mental Photography?

Mental Photography is your brain’s natural ability to tap into your own photographic memory. It’s a capability that everyone possesses and enables us to take in books and other information at a phenomenal rate. This process even leaves speed readers in the dust. In fact this advanced learning technique allows a person to take in new information about 100 times faster than the average reading speed. Even people with Dyslexia, ADD or ADHD can quickly master learning new information at amazing speeds.

Not only does Mental Photography help your brain process information at a faster rate, but it also enables us to retain the memory for life. Most of the things we read are forgotten within the first 48 hours. This learning system uses different pathways in your brain to help you process facts quickly and easily. More importantly, your brain will not forget. Information goes straight in and stays in long-term memory. They say it’s as if you read a book 100 times.

The process also helps you to become a lateral thinker. This ability helps a persons brain to solve complex problems that would ordinarily boggle the mind. Your brain’s thinking capabilities will improve exponentially.

Using Mental Photography can fully enhance your use of the Law of Attraction. According to the people at Zox Training Systems, by using Mental Photography, “You are actually turbo charging the part of your brain that works with The Secret Law of Attraction…To put your powers of manifestation 100% into hyper-drive.” What an intriguing possibility that is, hyper-driven manifestation.

The only limitations any of us have are our own negative thoughts. Our brains are fully programmable. The problem is most of us have been programmed with limited, negative thinking. It is proven by years of research that a brain can be reprogrammed. It doesn’t matter how old you are. You can achieve anything if you only think you can. The human brain can be programmed to eliminate negative thought patterns. Without this negativity a person can begin to move toward his/her own unlimited being. The power of the Law of Attraction along with your own enhanced mental powers can be life changing.

Astronaut, Edgar Mitchell says this about the technique, “What better way to be of service to our fellow humans and to simultaneously create a better life for ourselves than to introduce everyone to the benefits of the Subliminal Dynamics/Brain Management process?”

Mental Photography can help to use that huge area of the brain that normally goes untapped. Imagine how that could alter your world.

Law Of Attraction – Winning Lottery Or Any Goal

A few days ago I received an interesting email — which can be applied to ANY goal even though the person was referring to the lottery. Here’s the message:

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——– Original Message ——–
Subject: Problem with law of attraction and Lotteries
Date: Mon, 4 Aug 2008 19:47:32 -0300

I have read your interesting article “Millionaire mind: Win the Lottery – Luck or law of attraction?”

But sorry, I have found a problem with Law Of Attraction and Lotteries.

Imagine two guys: Paul and James who love to play in lotteries. Imagine there is an equipment called “Belief-meter” that shows the belief intensity in a scale 0~100. When applied to Paul and James the Belief-meter shows 100 to both guys. So, they have total, complete and absolute belief they will win in lottery.

Now these two guys will play in a lottery 5/50. But Paul chose the numbers 1-2-3-4-5 and James chose 46-47-48-49-50. Of course, the law of attraction will FAIL for one of these guys, since they chose different numbers, although they have total, complete and absolute belief they win in lottery.

How can you explain this situation?
Thanks.

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The answer you will be reading here applies to ANY goal — not only to winning the lottery. So, you’d better read carefully and absorb what you are reading.

The truth is that the law of attraction will NOT fail, but the Law of Attraction may make BOTH guys fail — NOT just only one of them!!!

Let’s start by saying that playing the Lottery is just another investment — just like investing in the stock market, real estate, commodities. The Universe doesn’t make any difference. The difference is only in your own mind. And lots MORE people lose EVERYTHING in the stock market, real estate and commodities than in the lottery. (Refer to our free Course on the lottery)

Too many gurus and experts out there keep saying that the Law of Attraction works for everything. But, they will give you all sorts of reasons why it doesn’t apply to the lottery.

Why not? If the Law of Attraction does not work for the lottery, then we have an exception. And then we may ask “How many more exceptions are there?”.

The REAL name of the “commercial” Law of Attraction is the LAW of BELIEF. The Law of Belief is the Law of Life.

And there are NO exceptions to this Law.

The Law is unbiased, impersonal, unforgiving with anyone who does not follow it. If you do not follow the Law you are doomed.

I want to remind you of the motion picture “Les Miserables”. For me, the best version is the one played by Richard Jordan (in the role of Jean Valiean) and Anthony Perkins (as Inspector Javert).

For Inspector Javert, there is no compassion, no mercy. ONLY the LAW!

The Universe operates in a similar way. If you do not obey the LAW, you are doomed — There is ONLY THE LAW!

So, you’d better learn about the LAW now!

The BEST way to deal with the Law of Belief (also known as the Law of Attraction) is to understand once and for all that those famous vibrations the gurus and experts are talking about are CAUSED by the BELIEFS and VALUES you hold at the Subconscious level.

Take care of those beliefs and values, and you will automatically generate the CORRECT ‘high’ vibrations that are exactly what you need to attract the results you desire.

WHY is it that they don’t teach you that? Either they are ignorant of the real LAW and how it works . . . or business is REAL GREAT for them!

There is absolutely NO NEED for you to become OBSESSED with your vibrations as these gurus and experts command you to do — while they keep SELLING more and more Law of Attraction books, DVDs, and paraphernalia. Great for THEIR business, BAD for YOU! (Refer to many of my previous articles about how the Law of Belief operates)

The super rich and super successful people do not go around OBSESSING about the BAD vibrations. They simply get busy ZAPPING from their minds the limiting, conflicting beliefs and values, and replacing them with beliefs/values that are supportive of their goals. They know that by doing that, the ‘vibrations’ will take care of themselves automatically without them becoming OBSESSED — which is the opposite of what most of the gurus and experts tell you to do!

After this enthusiastic but ACCURATE introduction, let’s answer the question in the email above.

It is 100% possible that both Paul and James believe 100% that each will win.

In fact, the human Belief-O-Meter may confirm that each one believes 100%. (Refer to one of my previous articles on how to make your own Belief-O-Meter).

But . . . and here is the BIG catch . . . the human Belief-O-Meter ONLY measures the magnitude of the belief about winning the lottery (25%, 50%, 77%, 93%, 100%).

The human Belief-O-Meter does NOT indicate that there might just be some HIDDEN and CONFLICTING BELIEF and/or VALUE that will make totally USELESS the 100% belief in winning the lottery.

I will give you a few examples.

Example 1:

What if Paul believes 100% he will win the jackpot but, hidden deep in his Subconscious, he has the religious belief that “Rich people never go to heaven”? And he wants to go to heaven. This hidden belief will neutralize the 100% belief in winning the lottery. Paul may not know of this hidden conflict. But the Subconscious does and it will make certain Paul will not win!

Example2:

Or maybe Paul believes that “Rich people are dishonest” and one of Paul’s highest VALUES is “honesty”. If he wins and becomes rich, he will become dishonest. And he will AVOID that at all cost because his subconscious mind will not allow him to go against his deep held VALUE of ‘honesty’. Therefore, his 100% belief in winning the lottery is in CONFLICT with a deep VALUE. He will NOT win! (or if he wins, he will very quickly lose all the money).

Example 3:

What if Paul has this VALUE that “It is better to give than to receive”? People with those USELESS values never receive anything, except problems. In Paul’s case, his Subconscious will NOT allow him to win because it would be in CONFLICT with Paul’s VALUE that receiving is NOT a good as giving. Does this remind you of those persons you may know who are always giving and helping others but who hardly receive anything in return? (Remember, the Universe doesn’t give a hoot because you did not obey the LAW of Belief which requires that you eliminate all conflicting values!).

Example 4:

What if James had this BELIEF that “We cannot afford it” because he heard his parents saying it over an over again while growing up? That belief is still in his Subconscious. It was never eliminated and replaced by “Yes, I can afford anything I want”. Now, if James were to win the jackpot in the lottery he will be able to afford anything! And that is something the Subconscious cannot allow because it is in conflict with James’s current belief “I cannot afford it”.
And as long as James keeps holding that limiting belief, he is doomed to failure.

Example 5

What if a long time ago, when James was a 4-5 year old kid, his mother got very upset with him and even punished him for placing a coin in his mouth while she yelled at him “Money is dirty!”?

Now, many years later, subconsciously, he will avoid money because ‘money is dirty” and he doesn’t want to be/get dirty! Again, a very limiting and forgotten experience created a belief that is in conflict with having money. James forgot all about that incident and what his mother said. But his Subconscious did NOT and will not allow him to win money because that would make him dirty. Actually,James will have all kinds of problems making ANY money because of that hidden belief.

Example 6:

What if Paul believes 100% he will win the jackpot but, hidden deep in his Subconscious, he has the belief that “It is real hard for me to make money”? This hidden belief will neutralize the 100% belief in winning the lottery. Why? Because to win the lottery the only EXTERNAL ACTION need is to BUY a lottery ticket. And that is TOO EASY! Paul may not know of this hidden conflict. But his Subconscious mind does and will make certain Paul will not win because it will be TOO EASY!

And this conflict will be increased even MORE if Paul happens to also believe that “making money through HARD work and by overcoming tremendous difficulties has LOTS of merit and easy money has NONE!”

(We all have heard the GREAT VALUE of working real hard, being defeated many times, UNTIL finally one wins against all odds! — propagated throughout history over and over again until TOTALLY hypnotizing the human race with the terribly LIMITING, USELESS and FALSE belief that ‘making money and achieving goals has only MERIT if done the HARD way and it is the ONLY way one can do it!”.)

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I believe you can easily come up with more examples of your own.

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The point I want you to understand is that MOST gurus and experts only talk about regular beliefs. And they SELDOM, if ever, teach you that you MUST start by FIRST identifying/eliminating limiting. conflicting BELIEFS and VALUES, and then, replace them with useful, supportive ones. We do teach you that and place GREAT emphasis on the fact that doing it is absolutely CRUCIAL to your success.

And ONLY Anthony Robbins and our Courses talk about the CRITICAL importance of VALUES and how to get rid of any conflicting values and replace them with the ones that will help you achieve your goals — and NOT block them.

Read carefully because the following not only applies to the lottery but to ANY goal, in ANY area of ,your life:

A — You can have a deep belief and certainty in getting your goal, but IF you have another hidden limiting BELIEF that is in CONFLICT with that goal, that ONE limiting belief will neutralize your 100% belief in achieving your goal and BLOCK your way — until that limiting belief is identified, eliminated and replaced by a useful, supportive belief.

B — You can have a deep belief and certainty in getting your goal, but IF you have another hidden limiting VALUE that is in CONFLICT with that goal, that ONE limiting value will neutralize your 100% belief in achieving your goal and BLOCK your way — until that limiting value is identified, eliminated and replaced by a useful, supportive value.

That’s is one of the most common reasons why — NOT only in the Lottery — MOST people do NOT get what they want. They work on believing 100% that they will get what they want, They can get 100% in the human Belief-O-Meter,
BUT . . . they IGNORE or WERE NEVER TAUGHT that they must also work on a different type of belies: VALUES.

*** Note: Value can be dealt with as an emotional ‘state’ (as in NLP) or as a different type of belief (the belief that something as little or a lot of ‘desirability’). Or as BOTH a belief and an emotional ‘state’.

One more time . . . . . .

The human Belief-O-Meter will ONLY indicate how much (50%,10%, 75%, 85%, 100%) you believe that you will win the lottery (or achieve ANY goal, in ANY area). . It does not say to you (and your Subconscious will not tell you either on its own initiative):

“John, Robert, Mary, etc., YOU have this conflicting VALUE that “money is evi”l, or that “rich people do not go to heaven”, or that “rich people are dishonest”, that “there are other things more important than money”. Therefore, as long as you continue holding any one of these conflicting VALUES, you cannot win”. OR . . .

“John, Robert, Mary, etc., YOU have this conflicting, limiting BELIEF that “Money is dirty”, “You cannot afford it”, or that “It is very hard for you to make money”. Therefore, as long as you continue holding any or all of these limiting beliefs you cannot win”.

In this case, it is NOT the belief in winning the lottery that is the problem. The problem is that one BELIEF (about winning) is in total CONFLICT with a hidden VALUE and/or another hidden BELIEF,

That is WHY we teach that you must not only identify/eliminate limiting, useless beliefs and replace them with beliefs that are NOT in conflict with your goals. You must ALSO identify/ eliminate the hidden CONFLICTING values and replace then with VALUES that are in perfect harmony with your other beliefs and goals.

There are many people who are absolutely certain they will achieve a certain goal. And, SOMEHOW, they always come up short.

The answer: their absolute belief and certainty have found ANOTHER hidden, conflicting belief and/or value which totally neutralize(s) their belief in total victory!

So, the question for you is:

A — Do you know what your BELIEFS are regarding your goal (be it winning the lottery or ANY other goal)? Do you know which BELIEFS are in CONFLICT with the goal(s) you want to achieve? If you do not know what your beliefs are and what conflict they can produce in your life, you will have lots of difficulty getting what you want.

B — Do you know what your VALUES are? Do you know in what order (sequence) they are? Do you know which VALUES are in CONFLICT with the goal(s) you want to achieve? If you do not know what your values are and what conflict they can produce in your life, you will have lots of difficulty getting what you want.

Now, you know what MOST gurus and experts do NOT know or, for some MYSTERIOUS reasons, FAIL to teach you about.

TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THIS KNOWLEDGE and straighten out your beliefs and values. Once you achieve that, your vibrations will automatically take care of themselves.

Sincerely,

.
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A Step-by-step Process In Searching For The Best Employment Attorney

Litigations and disputes related to employment are very complicated that’s the reason why looking for the best employment attorney is of paramount importance. As such, there are only some lawyers that are experts in this kind of situation. For beginners, you can rely on the services of a employment lawyer NYC with a great reputation.

The first thing that a plaintiff should consider when looking for employment lawyers is the experience and knowledge. Moreover, it is very crucial to determine if they already handled similar cases in the past. The more the lawyer is experienced, the better since they can formulate methods to give you the upper hand.

It’s just normal that state and federal laws will face alterations. Because of this, folks must choose New York employment lawyers who kept themselves updated with the most recent amendments in employment laws. If your lawyer is giving methods based on outdated laws, then there is a possibility that you will lose in your employment-related proceedings.

Attitude is another factor that a complainant should think about in opting for an employment lawyer. Most of the time, lawyers are offering free consultations on their first meeting. This is the best time for you to evaluate if the lawyer you are about to hire really cares about your case. In situations when the NYC employment lawyer is showing low interests to their client’s case, there is a great possibility that the trial proceedings will be uninteresting. A passionless and unimaginative lawyer, regardless of how competent, is unlikely to do well in handling their client’s case.

Go ahead and ask questions about your case whenever you meet up with the employment attorneys. The attorney that you’re opting must have the cabability to give answers to your questions in a way that is clear and easy to understand. In addition, they must provide you details regarding your responsibilities, legal option and rights. Additionally, most employment lawyers NYC will give you a written legal advice. The written legal advice must outline the strengths and weaknesses of the case. As a result, the employee will be able to prepare in advance in case they are going to be summoned.

Complex cases often require a considerable amount of time and resources especially if disputes have resulted to litigations. That’s why you should clear things about with your employment attorney regarding their payment. You can choose an hourly payment or through a contingency arrangement. In the event that your case can take time to be fixed, it’s highly recommended that you combine a contingency and hourly payment. This way, it is feasible for a clientele to pay the fees of their employment attorney NYC without depleting your financial resources.

When looking for employment attorneys firms, see to it that they have a Lexcel or ISO 9001 accreditation. The accreditation is merely given to firms that have met the highest standards in giving the very best legal services.

Outsourcing Legal Research

Large law firms and in house legal departments of large enterprises have enjoyed the benefits of outsourcing (quicker turnaround and lower costs) with success for quite some time in the United States.

On the other hand, small and midsize enterprises and law firms have just begun to outsource legal work to enjoy these benefits. This has become possible with a wider availability of technology at a lower cost, in addition to the arrival of a new breed of vendors who are addressing the unique requirements of small and midsized enterprises and law firms.

These vendors are providing services with better quality, by leveraging on technology and through deployment of experts in the work which is outsourced. Lawyers from India are increasingly familiar with US law and have several years of experience in doing legal work for US law firms and in house legal departments of large corporations. It has become possible to deploy experts these days due to aggregation of work from various clients, and the cascading higher volume of work.

The law firms and in house legal departments have enjoyed the benefits of a quicker turnaround time. The work left with the Indian entity at the end of their day is completed and available when they arrive at work the next day. These have become as important as the other core reason for outsourcing, namely saving of costs of law firms and enterprises have been able to save between 50 -60% of their cost by outsourcing legal services.

What work can be outsourced?

Any work that can be done without requiring fact to face interaction with clients or physical presence in a court of law can be outsourced. Some of the typical examples of work outsourced are in:

a)Contracts: Drafting, Review and management
b)Litigation Support : Discovery management, review, analysis and coding and Presentation
c)IP Rights: Search, Application for patents and defence
d)Legal and Business research

a)Contracts of Drafting, Review and Management

We prepare first-cut drafts of contracts that are fit for purpose and conform to your house style. You need to provide:
.Standard templates that conform to your house style and
.Unique variables relating to each contract

Your lawyers would still be in control over the quality of the draft and enforceability in courts of law without having to log expensive time in preparing the first cut draft.

We can handle a wide variety of contracts including contracts for:
.Sale of securities and derivatives
.Sale of goods or services
.Sale or mortgage of property
.Lease of property
.Lease of equipments
.Employment etc

We manage your contracts by maintaining a comprehensive database of all your contracts that provide:
.Contract information (Purpose, Period, Entities, Addresses, Counsel, Validity, Termination rights, Applicable law, Jurisdiction etc
.Summary of terms
.History of notices

We maintain a summary of all obligations and covenants (to facilitate compliance) and all rights (to enforce compliance)

b)Litigation Support

Our litigation support services include:
.Discovery management,
.Review
.Analysis and coding and
.Presentation

To help your lawyers focus on successfully winning or defending cases.

We help your lawyers to stay focused on winning the case by providing discovery management support.
Our services include:
.Understanding case issues and priorities
.Determination of collecting strategy
.Determination of work processes to speed up and yet not miss out on collecting documents
.Quick focus on most useful documents by continuous elimination of irrelevant items
.Quick analysis of documents for materiality, relevance, confidentiality and privilege; rapid automated
codification and validation
.Quick production of documents to facilitate rapid internalization and access

We can work with your proprietary document discovery management system or any standard off-the-shelf solution including ConcordanceFYI and CaseLogistix.

In spite of increasing popularity of e-discovery, physical paperwork has continued to stay. We help your lawyers by reviewing physical paper documents and codifying them for rapid prioritization and access.

We measure our success by reducing your attorneys document review time and cost. Not just by being more competitive than other providers in discovery process.

c)IP Rights

Our lawyers (supported by domain professionals) can support you in
.Prior Art Search,
.Assessment of patentability,
.Patent proofing,
.Invention disclosure evaluation and
.Drafting the application for patents.

We offer support in IP Asset management with review of potential or existing infringements and in litigations to protect against such infringements.

d)Legal and Business Research

We conduct research on industry standard private databases as well as public domain databases to provide research support to your team of lawyers to win/defend litigation or to provide counsel to clients on complex issues.
Our research support includes:
.Reviewing legislation
.Reviewing case law precedence
.Reviewing journals
.Reviewing contracts and
.Preparing summaries and abstracts.

Where to outsource?
Law firms and in house legal departments typically outsource legal work to someone who is willing to understand their requirements, and give quality service that they require.

TaurusQuest is one such company, which has acquired expertise in serving small and midsize enterprises better, and has been recognized for its operational excellence and delighting service. We were awarded 4th worldwide by the US based Black Book of Outsourcing for one of our services in 2007. We have a number of legal professionals who have experience in providing the services mentioned above to US and International law firms and to business enterprises. The senior executives of the company have lived and worked in the US.TaurusQuest has two delivery centers in Chennai, India with 300 seats.

Lucky Lottery Systems How to Know Which Winning Lottery System to Try

I cant actually call myself the definitive source on the subject of which winning lottery method to try because I havent personally tried any winning lottery system yet. I havent won a mega lottery jackpot and this article is not a testimonial of the various programs. But the subject interests me and I want to share my opinions.

I think that Im most of the worlds email lists and Ive recently received two mail outs that tweaked my further reading and thoughts on the subject matter. The first I received {spoke of winning the lottery by the law of attraction.

Perhaps youve seen or explored this avenue: the law of attraction used to be a very hot topic and a large number of Internet products are still rooted on principles expressed in The Secret.
Winning Lottery Jackpots using the Law of Attraction The law of attraction works. I can attest to this from my own experience and I deem myself an expert on attracting but I wonder if it works specifically for lottery wins. I suppose that it must but the law of attraction needs absolute faith and therein is the problem.

Think of the law of attraction as being similar to faith healing. The healing doesnt happen without the faith and similarly, the law of attraction will not attract anything beneficial unless you really believe that it will. To perform as it can, the law of attraction needs you to think of it as a law that is as unbreakable as the law of gravity. Can you manage the total belief in a law of attraction winning lottery system? Bearing in mind that any slight wavering in belief nullifies the possibility.

Winning Lottery Jackpots using a Mathematical Formula The other email offer I received was one suggesting that a math teacher had a lottery winning formula for sale. Those who know me may think this type of lottery winning system would be the last one I would use or suggest, but lets look at this objectively.

Even if a numerical system existed to correctly pick winning numbers, then the more people that used the same formula to get exactly the same number sequence would dilute the value of the prize. (This humorously happened in the movie Bruce Almighty). On the other hand, mathematics is always the truth because numbers are not capable of falsehood. Im reminded of a very short science fiction story I read about all the computers being finally linked together to answer the question “Is there a God?” And the amazing computer answered, “Now there is.”

So here is my thinking on this articles topic of how to pick which winning lottery system to buy.

Either try both together, or use neither.
The best chance of winning a big lottery jackpot is with the law of attraction: of that I am certain. But your best way of gaining the degree of certainty required to initiate the law of attraction, is to have something tangible and believable like a proven mathematical lottery winning formula working for you. For the optimum chance of winning a lottery jackpot you would be using the law of attraction to get it and the mathematical formula can focus your mind to do it.

The universe is not random and almost nothing in it is truly random either. Something tips every balance and why any given number comes up in a lottery winning result has been predetermined.

I said either use both the law of attraction lottery program and employ the math professors lottery winning formula, or to employ neither. Ill rephrase it a bit.

Becoming A Self-employed Entrepreneur The Netherlands

Registration in the Dutch trade register is compulsory for every company and every legal entity, including ‘freelance’ and ‘zzp’ (‘zelfstandige zonder personeel’ or self-employed without staff).

When you have decided to start your own business a new world is opening up, with a wide variety of possibilities. You could open a shop or start your own consultancy firm; become a full-time or a part-time entrepreneur. Clients may wish to hire you for advice or construction work.
Before plucking up which is planted, there is a time to plant. In other words: you will have to be prepared to tackle challenges as well – either as a provider of services or products, as a self-employed entrepreneur, a sole trader, an independent contractor, or as a freelancer or so-called “ZZP-er”.

The risky side of freedom and independence

Whether you offer services or products: you will do so at your own risk, expense and with full responsibility towards third parties. As well as this, being self-employed entails certain obligations, such as paying taxes and VAT and keeping records of your business activities. Preparing well is the best way to start. You are definitely not on your own; the Dutch business world offers plenty of competent assistance.

Starting point

Before you visit the Chamber of Commerce to register your enterprise, you should have considered the following:

* a permit to start a business in the Netherlands
* a business plan
* legal form and trade name of your enterprise
* taxation and necessary insurance
* business location, commercial lease
* a VAR’-statement from the Tax Administration, declaring you as a self-employed entrepreneur

Starting your own business

If you do not have the Dutch nationality, and want to start a business in the Netherlands, you will have to comply with particular IND (Immigratie en Naturalisatie Dienst, the Dutch immigration authorities) formalities. Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND (for almost all EU nationals) please do so all the same, as it may come in quite handy for other purposes.

The Dutch Chambers of Commerce are incorporated under public law and, as such, target their services at Dutch businesses across all sectors.

Dutch immigration authorities

The legal form of your enterprise makes no difference to the applicability of the rules by the Dutch immigration authorities: whether it is a one-man business, a Dutch private limited (BV), or a branch-office of a foreign company. The rules do not differ either whether you start an enterprise shortly after arriving in the Netherlands, or after having been employed in the Netherlands for some time. However, rules and formalities do differ broadly speaking for EU nationals and non-EU nationals. Please check also the IND Residence Wizard

EU, EEA and Swiss nationals

Nationals of one of the EU Member States, the EEA (European Economic Area), or a Swiss citizen, are free to live and work on a self-employed basis in the Netherlands and do not need an entry visa or a residence permit.

Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND, do so all the same, as it may come in handy in the future. For instance, when asked for proof of registration on taking out Dutch public healthcare insurance, a healthcare, housing or childcare allowance, a mortgage, or a phone subscription. Registration is free of charge. If you intend to stay over four months, you are always required to register at your local municipality. The expatdesk will help you out here.

Working on a self-employed basis when a EU, EEA and Swiss national

There are no specific IND formalities that have to be fulfilled for nationals of these states.

Different rules apply for citizens of Bulgaria or Romania as long as restrictions on the Dutch labour market remain in force. Nationals of these countries are advised to apply for a residence permit, which will be useful in a number of situations. The procedure is called “Application for assessment under the EU community law (proof of lawful residence)”.

Nationals of non-EU and non-EEA countries

If you are not a national of an EU or EEA country and not Swiss, you will need to apply for a residence permit in case you stay longer than three months in the Netherlands. A residence permit can be obtained from the IND.

If you are a national of a country subject to the Dutch visa requirement for more than three months’ stay, you will have to apply for a special visa: a provisional residence permit, an MVV (Machtiging Voorlopig Verblijf).

Working on a self-employed basis as national of non-EU / non-EEA country and non-Swiss
In this case you will have to meet several economic criteria before starting an enterprise in the Netherlands:

* You are qualified to run the business in question.
* You have a business plan.
* Your business serves an essential Dutch interest, i.e. “added value” for the Netherlands.

The IND does not weigh these criteria itself; the Ministry of Economic Affairs is requested to review your situation and to decide whether the business you intend to run will be economically interesting. If this turns out not to be the case, you cannot start your own business in the Netherlands.

Review of economic added value

* a permit to start a business in the Netherlands
* a business plan
* legal form and trade name of your enterprise
* taxation and necessary insurance
* business location, commercial lease
* a VAR’-statement from the Tax Administration, declaring you as a self-employed entrepreneur

Starting your own business

If you do not have the Dutch nationality, and want to start a business in the Netherlands, you will have to comply with particular IND (Immigratie en Naturalisatie Dienst, the Dutch immigration authorities) formalities. Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND (for almost all EU nationals) please do so all the same, as it may come in quite handy for other purposes.

The Dutch Chambers of Commerce are incorporated under public law and, as such, target their services at Dutch businesses across all sectors.

Dutch immigration authorities

The legal form of your enterprise makes no difference to the applicability of the rules by the Dutch immigration authorities: whether it is a one-man business, a Dutch private limited (BV), or a branch-office of a foreign company. The rules do not differ either whether you start an enterprise shortly after arriving in the Netherlands, or after having been employed in the Netherlands for some time. However, rules and formalities do differ broadly speaking for EU nationals and non-EU nationals. Please check also the IND Residence Wizard

EU, EEA and Swiss nationals

Nationals of one of the EU Member States, the EEA (European Economic Area), or a Swiss citizen, are free to live and work on a self-employed basis in the Netherlands and do not need an entry visa or a residence permit.

Even if you are not obliged to register with the IND, do so all the same, as it may come in handy in the future. For instance, when asked for proof of registration on taking out Dutch public healthcare insurance, a healthcare, housing or childcare allowance, a mortgage, or a phone subscription. Registration is free of charge. If you intend to stay over four months, you are always required to register at your local municipality. The expatdesk will help you out here.

Working on a self-employed basis when a EU, EEA and Swiss national

There are no specific IND formalities that have to be fulfilled for nationals of these states.

Different rules apply for citizens of Bulgaria or Romania as long as restrictions on the Dutch labour market remain in force. Nationals of these countries are advised to apply for a residence permit, which will be useful in a number of situations. The procedure is called “Application for assessment under the EU community law (proof of lawful residence)”.

Nationals of non-EU and non-EEA countries

If you are not a national of an EU or EEA country and not Swiss, you will need to apply for a residence permit in case you stay longer than three months in the Netherlands. A residence permit can be obtained from the IND.

If you are a national of a country subject to the Dutch visa requirement for more than three months’ stay, you will have to apply for a special visa: a provisional residence permit, an MVV (Machtiging Voorlopig Verblijf).

Working on a self-employed basis as national of non-EU / non-EEA country and non-Swiss
In this case you will have to meet several economic criteria before starting an enterprise in the Netherlands:

* You are qualified to run the business in question.
* You have a business plan.
* Your business serves an essential Dutch interest, i.e. “added value” for the Netherlands.

The IND does not weigh these criteria itself; the Ministry of Economic Affairs is requested to review your situation and to decide whether the business you intend to run will be economically interesting. If this turns out not to be the case, you cannot start your own business in the Netherlands.

Review of economic added value
The Ministry of Economic Affairs awards points for each criterion. You will need a minimum of 30 points for each criterion (total number for all criteria: 300).

The scoring system consists of three parts:

a) Personal experience (education, experience as a self-employed person, working experience);
b) Business plan (market analysis, product/service, price, organisation, financing);
c) Material economic purpose for the Netherlands (innovative, job creation, investments).

You should always contact the IND to find out about the procedure involved in testing the economic interest of the enterprise you intend to start. For nationals of some countries, for example Turkey, special rules apply on the basis of treaties between the EU and these countries. And when you are from the United States of America, it is important to know there is the so-called Nederland-Amerikaans’ vriendschapsverdrag’.

Taking your business from abroad

The Dutch comparative companies Act recognises all foreign legal entities except businesses owned by one man or one woman. If you run a one-person business in your country of origin and you can prove this, for example by submitting a copy of registration in a commercial register in that country, you can bring this enterprise to the Netherlands and have it registered at the Chamber of Commerce as a Dutch one-man or -woman business.

Other legal foreign entities or foreign business forms are simply registered as a foreign legal entity with commercial activities.

Please note that you will still have to comply with the IND residency rules

Starting a branch office in the Netherlands

There is a question of a branch when long-lasting business operations, which form part of the foreign enterprise, are (being) conducted in the Netherlands. A branch can be: a sales office or a production company, but also a representative office. It does not have an independent legal form, but is a part of the foreign enterprise.

Dutch law recognises foreign legal entities. In other words: the foreign legal entity wishing to start activities in the Netherlands needs not be converted into a Dutch legal form.

A business plan is essential

No matter small or big the business is, a business plan will help you identify areas of strengths and weaknesses.

Banks require a business plan when you take out a loan. Even if you do not need the latter, and financing your enterprise is not a problem, a business plan will definitely help you understand the impact of starting a business. Submitting a business plan is also one of the criteria set for non-EU and non-EEA nationals to be allowed to start their own enterprise in the Netherlands.

Get started: Write the plan yourself

Crucial questions you should ask are:

* Which legal form will best suit the enterprise?
* Which products or services will you offer?
* Who will be your clients?
* Promotional activities to get contracts?
* How to optimize visibility to your target group?
* Which prices and fees?
* Financial plan (available budgets, expected turnover, investments)?
* Which insurances do you need?
* Permits and/or licences required?
* Administrational organisation, which form?
* What should be included in your General Terms and Conditions if applicable?

Formats

Business plan formats can be obtained from various private parties that specialise in supporting starters. Just surf the internet. Small business planner at http://www.sba.gov/ is a useful site.

Employment law issue: employed or self-employed?

If you go freelance, you should pay extra attention to your situation, because the term ‘freelancer’ is not a definition recognized by law. Freelancers operate somewhere in between being self-employed and being in paid employment.

As an independent entrepreneur you pay taxes and contributions yourself, and you are not entitled to rights employers are: minimum wage, paid holidays, a holiday allowance, statutory safeguards against dismissal and a statutory notice period.

In order to designate the employment relationship while starting your business, it is important to consider different contracts and apply for a Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR) at the Tax Administration.

Employment on the basis of a contract and implied employment

Regardless of the title chosen for the contract with your client, it is considered an employment contract if the following criteria are met:

* your remuneration for the work performed can be seen as wages;
* there is an obligation to do the work yourself: you cannot send someone else to do the job for you. Having to be available for specific work, e.g. on-call service, will also be considered as work performed in employment;
* a relationship of authority: the employer can determine where, when and how the work should be carried out. This relation also exists if the work you do is an essential element in the employer’s business operations or if the employer’s profitability is at risk without you.

If the working relation does not show all characteristics of a “proper” employment relation, it may still be seen as one. This is called a notional employment relationship: although the employment relation has not been established explicitly, there is an implicit employer-employee relation. Consequently, the fee you charge is seen as wage, so, the employer will have to deduct taxes from your wages and pay national insurance and employee insurance contributions.

A notional employment relation exists if:

* you work for a client project for at least at two days a week;
* you earn more than 40% of the minimum wages for the project a week;
* the relation with the client lasts more than 30 days; a new contract within one month after the termination of the first contract is seen as continuation of the previous contract.

A notional employment does not exist if actual and practical independence can be proven, for which a VAR can be instrumental.

Commercial contracts

As a self-employed entrepreneur you or your client can initiate to formalise the contractor-client relation by entering into a commercial contract. Parties should always insist on putting down the arrangements agreed upon.
There are two types of commercial contracts:
1. Service agreement – Under this type of contract you are obliged to perform to the best of your ability, committing yourself to do your client’s work without being employed by him. The work is usually classified as services’.
2. Contractor agreement – Under this type of contract you have a specific target obligation. You commit yourself to produce a concrete, tangible object at a certain price.

Criteria for legal independence: Actual circumstances are decisive here. An official statement signed by client and yourself that the contract is a commercial one is helpful proof. Criteria are:

* the degree of independence and absence of supervision/authority;
* permanence;
* pursuit of profit;
* clientele.

Not just these criteria, but their interconnection especially plays a decisive role.

De Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR)

In order to designate the employment relationship you can apply for a Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR) at the Tax Administration. The VAR is an official statement. Based upon the applicant’s information the Tax Administration will define income as:

* Income earned in employment: the freelancer will have a VAR income.
* Income earned from other proceedings: the freelancer will have a VAR-row.
* Profit from enterprise: the freelancer will have a VAR-wuo.
* Partnership’s own risk and account: the freelancer will have a VAR-dga.

VAR-income and -row: employed or not?

With a view to the VAR-income and row, the employer will have to define and check whether he should pay income tax and employees insurance premiums, based upon the existence of an employment contract or otherwise. Explanatory assistance but no definite answer! – can be found at the website of the Ministry of Finance. The Tax Administration may conclude differently.

VAR-wuo and dga: certainty in advance

Only VAR-wuo or -dga supply the employer beforehand with complete financial certainty provided he meets the following conditions:

* The freelancer’s activities should be similar to the VAR’s description. So, the freelancer is not entitled to carry out IT work if the VAR denotes carpentry.
* The freelancer is on the job during the validity of the VAR (1 calendar year).
* The VAR should be the authentic original.
* The employer should determine the freelancer’s identity on the basis of a valid proof of identity (not driver’s licence). Copies of the VAR and proof of identity should be kept in the administration for seven years.

Having acted this way, the employer has a solid defence in case the Tax Administration or UWV may reach another verdict afterwards. So, it may be wise for both freelancers and employers to object against a VAR-income or -row.

VAR application

Bearing in mind the utmost importance of the VAR-outcome, it is obviously important to carefully fill out the VAR-form. Only the freelancer him/herself is allowed to apply for a Verklaring Arbeidsrelatie (VAR); the employer is not entitled to do this. A directeur-groot aandeelhouder (DGA) should apply for a VAR in case of external consultancy.

The Tax Administration provides a digital VAR application form; to which you will get a reply within 8 weeks. If additional information is needed, the Tax Administration will contact the applicant.

Please note the following when filling out the form: The Tax Administration considers request as a total, coherently, and takes the activities into account. If not all answers are favourable it does not necessarily mean that no VAR-wuo will be given. For example: an interim manager with two or more employers can still be entitled to a VAR-wuo.

The freelancer should write down reasonable expectations. If, however, the actual situation afterwards turns out to have been differently, this will not have any consequences as long as the deviation is within normal risk of enterprise limits. For example, the freelancer expected to have 3 or more employers, but due to a recession this turned out differently.

The freelancer has to fill out the form to the best of his knowledge and should not deliberately misrepresent the state of affairs. If this should afterwards be proven to have been the case, the Tax Administration will recover the indebted taxes and premiums from the freelancer.

Some of the questions need a yes’ or no’ only; choose the nearest suitable.

Relation employer/former employer

As a part-time independent entrepreneur / part-time employee you could get involved in a conflict of interest with your (former) employer. If you intend to provide services, comparable to the ones he provides, you better ask his permission/advice to run your own business.

Starting a business as a full-time independent entrepreneur you should be aware of a possible conflict of interests as well. You probably signed a non-competition clause within your employment contract that remains valid after termination of employment. In any case it is wise to contact/consult your (former) employer of your intentions.

Legal forms and registration of an enterprise

The Chambers of Commerce can answer your questions about the legal environment of your business. Seminars and other regular services are available.

The majority of starting entrepreneurs either choose a one-man business or a general partnership as the legal form for their business, according to their preference on doing business by themselves or in cooperation with others.

In order to accommodate the starting entrepreneur or professional, Dutch law recognizes various legal forms, such as a one-man business, a private limited company (BV), a partnership or a limited partnership. The main issues at stake are the matter of liability if your enterprise should run up debts, and which tax regime applies.

One-person business

One-person business (lit. one-man in Dutch: eenmanzak) is also referred to as sole trader or sole proprietorship or independent contractor.

If you start a one-person business you will be the fully independent founder and owner. More than one person may work in a one-person business, but there can only be one owner. A one-person business can also employ personnel.

Setting up

You can establish a one-person business without a notarial deed. Registration in the Trade Register is mandatory. As a private individual you can only register one one-man business. However, you can have more than one trade name and carry out various business activities under different trade names. These activities can be carried out at the same or at another address, as a branch office of the one-man business.

Liability

As the owner of a one-person business you are responsible for everything concerning your enterprise; for every legal act and all its assets and liabilities. No distinction is made between private and business property. Thus, business creditors can seek recovery from your private property and private creditors from your business property. If your one-man business goes bankrupt, you yourself go bankrupt as well.

If the owner of a one-person business should be married in a community of property regime, the creditors may also lay claim to the partner’s property. Partner liability can be avoided by a prenuptial or a postnuptial agreement drafted by a civil-law notary. However, since partners are usually requested to co-sign when taking a loan, the agreement may not offer the protection expected. A civil-law notary can provide more information.

Taxes and social security

The profit made in a one-person business is taxed in box 1 income tax. If the Tax Administration fully considers you an entrepreneur, you are entitled to tax allowances such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance.

The owner of a one-person business cannot claim social benefits under the Sickness Benefits Act, the Work and Income Act and the Unemployment Insurance Act. Therefore, it is advisable to take out insurances to cover these risks. You will qualify for the following national insurance schemes:

* General Old Age Pensions Act
* -Surviving Dependants Act
* Exceptional Medical Expenses Act
* General Child Benefit Act

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

With a one-man business no distinction is made between private and business. If you die, both business and private property will fall into your heirs’ estate. You will need to make provisions to guarantee your business’ continuity. A tax consultant could provide more details.

B. General partnership, the “VOF”

A general partnership is a form of cooperation in which you run a business with one or more business partners. You and your partner(s) are the associates or members of the general partnership. One of the characteristics of this legal form is that each partner contributes something to the business: capital, goods, efforts (work) and/or goodwill.

Setting up

A partnership contract is not a statutory requirement for the formation of a general partnership, but it is, of course, advisable to put down in writing what you and your business partner(s) have agreed upon. A partnership contract could arrange the following matters:

* name of the general partnership;
* objective;
* contributions by partners in capital, knowhow, goodwill, assets and efforts (work);
* distribution of profits and offset of loss;
* allocation of powers;
* arrangements in case of illness;
* arrangements for a partner’s days off/ holiday.

Liability

An important characteristic of the general partnership is the joint and separate liability of the partners. Each partner can be held fully liable – including private property – if the general partnership fails to meet its obligations, even if these obligations were entered into by another, authorised partner. Creditors of the partnership may seek recovery from your business property and your private property and the property of the other partner(s). Restrictions agreed upon in the partners’ authority have to be officially registered in order to gain legal effectiveness towards third parties.

The general partnership usually has separate capital’, i.e. the business capital contributed by the partners, which is kept apart from their private property and capital. This capital is to be solely used for business purposes. Should one or more creditors seek recovery from the partnership – for instance in the case of bankruptcy – they could do so from the separate capital. If this should be inadequate to pay the partnership’s debts, creditors may seek full recovery from the partners’ private property. If so, you could hold the other partner(s) liable for having failed to meet their obligations, but only after the creditors have been paid. In private matters creditors of partners cannot seek recovery from the partnership’s business assets or the private property of the other partner(s).

Because of this partners’ broad liability it is advisable to have a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement drafted if you are married under a community of property regime. A civil-law notary could provide you with more information.

Taxes and social security

Each partner will pay their own income tax on his profit share. If the Tax Administration sees the individual partner as an entrepreneur, they are entitled to all kinds of tax allowances, such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance.

As far as social security is concerned, the same rules apply for the entrepreneur partner as for the owner of a one-person business.

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Under Dutch law the general partnership ends when one of the partners resigns or dies. In order to secure the continuation of the general partnership, the partners can include a clause in the partnership contract arranging for the other partners to continue the general partnership with or without a new partner or to terminate it.

C. Limited partnership, the “CV”

A limited partnership, the “CV”, is a special type of general partnership (VOF). The difference is that the CV has two types of business partners: general, and limited or sleeping partners. The latter are only financially involved; they cannot act on behalf of the partnership. Besides, the name of a limited partner cannot be used in the trade name of the limited partnership.

Setting up

A partnership contract is no statutory requirement for a limited partnership, but, again, partners better put down the agreements. Apart from the matters mentioned in the VOF, the contract should arrange the distribution of profit between general and limited partners. When registering a limited partnership in the Trade Register, the personal details of the general partners are listed; the details concerning the limited partners are restricted to total number and their contributions in the partnership.

Liability

General partners can be held fully liable if the partnership fails to meet its obligations. Bankruptcy of the limited partnership will automatically lead to the general partners’ bankruptcy (not applicable to limited partners). A limited partner can only be held liable to the maximum sum contributed to the partnership. However, should the limited partner act on behalf of the partnership, he will be seen as a general partner and fully liable, in which case creditors of the partnership can lay claim on his private property as well. Restrictions agreed upon in the partners’ authority have to be officially registered in order to gain legal force towards third parties.

The general partners’ liability in a limited partnership is quite broad, so, if partners are married under a community of property regime they are advised to have a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement drafted. A civil-law notary could provide more information.

Taxes and social security

General partners pay income tax on their share in the profit. If the Tax Administration sees the individual partner as an entrepreneur, they are entitled to various tax allowances, such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance. As far as social security is concerned, the same rules apply to the entrepreneur partner as to the owner of a one-person business. Limited partners, who cannot be held personally liable for the enterprise’s debts, are not seen as entrepreneurs by the Tax Administration.

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Under Dutch law the limited partnership ends when one of the partners resigns or dies. In order to secure the continuation of the limited partnership, the partners can include a clause in the contract arranging for the other partners to continue the partnership with or without a new partner or to terminate it.

D. Professional partnership, the maatschap’

The partnership referred to as maatschap’ under Dutch law differs from the general partnership and the limited partnership in that it is a form of cooperation established by professionals such as doctors, dentist, lawyers, accountants, physiotherapists etc., rather than a cooperation established for the purpose of doing business. The partners are referred to as maten’ instead of partners’. Each maat’ contributes personal efforts, capital and/or assets. The purpose is to share the income earned on the one hand and the expenses incurred on the other.
Setting up a professional partnership

A partnership contract is no statutory requirement for the formation of a professional partnership, but partners better lay down their agreements with the other professionals in a partnership contract. This partnership contract could arrange the following matters:

* contributions made by the partners;
* distribution of profits, pro rata each partner’s contribution – distributing all profit to one partner is not allowed;
* allocation of powers – each partner is entitled to perform management acts, unless agreed upon otherwise; as of 1 July 2008 the professional partnership has to register in the Trade Register. This does not apply to partnerships that only act internally, such as a partnership in which costs are pooled.

Liability

Each authorised partner can enter into a contract, thus binding the partnership: all partners. Each partner can be held liable for an equal part. If a partner should act beyond his authorization, the other partners will in principle not be held liable: the partner in question is the only partner that has bound himself. A professional partnership has no separate capital’ from the private assets of the partners. Creditors having a claim on the partnership can only seek recovery for equal parts from the individual partners; these creditors do not rank above creditors who have a claim on the private assets of a partner. To a married partner the same reservations apply as to the general partners in general partnerships and limited partnerships. They are advised to have a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement drafted. A civil-law notary could provide more information.

Taxes and social security
Each partner pays income tax on his profit share. If the Tax Administration sees the individual partner as an entrepreneur, he is entitled to various tax allowances, such as the entrepreneur’s allowance, investment allowance and the tax-deferred retirement allowance. Regarding social security the same rules apply to the entrepreneur partner as to the owner of a one-man business

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Under Dutch law the professional partnership ends when one of the partners resigns or dies. In order to secure the continuation of the partnership, the partners can include a clause in the contract arranging for the other partners to continue the partnership with or without a new partner or to terminate it.

E. Private company with limited liability, BV’

In contrast to the legal forms described above – enterprises run by natural persons – the private limited is a legal person: a person having rights and obligations, just like a natural person. The natural person who has incorporated the private limited cannot be held liable, in principle, for the debts incurred by the private limited. The BV itself is seen as the entrepreneur, whereas the natural person who is appointed director merely acts on behalf of the BV and cannot be held personally liable for his acts. A private limited company can be incorporated by one person a sole shareholder BV or by more persons. The capital of a private limited is divided in shares.

Incorporating

This involves a number of statutory requirements, most important of which:
Incorporation takes place through a notarial deed. This should include the articles of association of the company. The civil-law notary will check the legal contents of the articles.
A certificate of no-objection from the Ministry of Justice must be submitted before the incorporation can be effected. The Ministry checks whether the person incorporating the company has ever been involved in bankruptcy proceedings or fraud cases.

The incorporation of a BV requires a minimum capital of EUR 18,000 (cash or in kind) in the private limited.

Liability

The shareholder’s liability is limited to the total sum of his participation. Since the BV is a legal person, having its own independent rights and obligations, the persons involved – directors and supervisors – cannot be held liable for the debt of the company. In other words: the company’s creditors can never seek recovery from the private assets of these officers. However, a company director or officer may be held liable as a private person if he has acted negligently or culpably. If they are responsible for the company’s bankruptcy because of wrongful or fraudulent behaviour in the company’s policy, creditors of the company may file a claim against them.

In the formation phase of the company, a director may be liable for the company’s acts. This liability ends as soon as the legal person is incorporated and the acts are confirmed by the company. As long as the company has not been registered in the Trade Register, directors’ and officers’ liability continues. In practice, limited liability often does not apply because banks require the director and principal shareholder of the company to co-sign for loans taken out on behalf of the BV.

Taxes and social security

The private limited pays corporation tax also referred to as company income tax on the profits earned. The BV’s director and shareholder are employed by the BV His eligibility for social security under the Dutch social security laws depends on the relation of authority between himself and the private limited. A relation of authority is considered not to exist if:

* the director, possibly with his or her spouse, can cast more than 50% of the votes in the shareholders’ meeting;
* two thirds or more of the shares are held by the director and/or close relatives up to the third degree;
* the director cannot be dismissed against their will.

Without a relation of authority, the director and shareholder cannot rely on the social security insurances. He will have to take out his own insurances; to him the same rules apply as to the owner of a one-person business.

Continuation of the business activities and business succession

Continuation of the company is secured by the fact that the BV is a legal person that exists independently from the persons having incorporated or managing the private limited. When the director dies, the continuation of the enterprise is not at risk, viz. the enterprise is run by the BV and a new director will have to be appointed.

A private limited can be sold in two different ways:

* BV’s shares are sold;
* BV’s enterprise (machines, inventory, stocks, etc.) is sold.

If the shares are sold, the proceeds are subject to income tax (box 2) if the shareholder has a substantial interest (holder of a minimum of 5% of the shares).

If the enterprise is sold, the BV will have to pay corporation tax on the profit or book profit on the sale. If the shareholder of the BV selling the enterprise is a BV itself, the structure is referred to as a holding – advantage of which: the holding will in principle have to pay taxes on the proceeds.

Registration of your enterprise

Before you are allowed to start your business operations, you have to register your enterprise in the Dutch Trade Register, which is administered by the Chambers of Commerce. Registrations in the Trade Register are public; everyone can check whether a particular person is authorised to act on behalf of an enterprise and which legal form it has: a one-man business, a partnership or a private or public limited.

The Chamber of Commerce could run a trade name investigation for you to make sure that the selected trade name does not infringe the rights of other enterprises. This trade name investigation is not free of charge.

Holland Gateway (the cooperation of the Netherlands Chambers of Commerce, Ministry of Economic Affairs and other official institutions) is located at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport. This bureau promotes the ease of doing business in the Netherlands.

How to register your enterprise

Registration requirements

Once you have decided upon your business’ legal form, you can have your enterprise registered at the local Chamber of Commerce. Registration should take place within a period of one week preceding, and one week following the actual commencement of business activities.

Without registration in the GBA, you will need to submit authenticated proof of your residential address abroad. The person registering the business has to submit a valid proof of identity, which document has to be personally submitted at the Chamber of Commerce. The following documents are accepted as valid IDs:

* a valid travel document (passport or European ID card);
* a valid Dutch driving licence (non-Dutch driving licence not accepted);
* a residence permit issued by the IND;
* a Dutch refugee passport
* a Dutch aliens passport

If you do not start your business at your home address but at a location you have e.g. rented, you will also be requested to show the lease to confirm the business address.

Once the registration has been completed, you will be given a unique eight-figure registration number. This KvK number should be referred to on all your outgoing mail. Free of charge, you will receive an extract of your registration, a KvK-uittreksel'(excerpt).

Who can register the enterprise

When an enterprise is registered at the Chamber of Commerce, it is of the utmost importance that the registration forms which are submitted have been signed by the right person. Depending on the legal form of the enterprise, the forms can be registered in the Trade Register by:

* the owner of the one-man business (registration of a one-man business),
* the partners (registration of a general partnership, VOF, and a professional partnership, maatschap’)
* or the general partners (registration of a limited partnership, CV’)
* If the enterprise is a legal person, a BV, the civil-law notary will usually see to the registration formalities.

The persons who should register the enterprise and sign the registration forms can also be held responsible in the event an enterprise is not registered.

In special circumstances other persons may be authorized and/or obliged to see to the registration of an enterprise. The Chamber of Commerce can advise you on these circumstances.

Registration forms

The registration forms can be downloaded from the Chamber of Commerce website. As a statutory requirement, all forms are in Dutch and have to be completed in Dutch. Translations in English of forms 6, 11 and 13 are available to assist you while filling in the Dutch form to be handed in.
Registration is not free of charge. When you register a business, a fee will be due for the calendar year the enterprise is registered in. After that initial year, an annual fee will be charged in the first quarter of each year. The total sum of this contribution depends on the legal form.

After registration

Once the enterprise has been registered, it is the owner or partner’s responsibility to keep the information up-to-date. With a BV the manager authorised to act on behalf of the BV is responsible.

Permits and Licences

Most business activities can be performed without any permits or licences, but for some activities, like catering business, transport or taxi firm, you do need a licence. And an environmental permit may be required if your products or business operations negatively affect the environment. Permits and licences can be applied for at the municipality or at the provincial authorities.

Check how you can use your degree or diploma for your business in the Netherlands. International Credential Evaluation: http://www.idw.nl/international-credential-evaluation.html

Some sectors require registration with an industry board or a product board. Registration is a statutory requirement, based on the Act on Business Organisations. An industry board is a kind of interest group for a specific sector. The same applies to a product board, which includes all enterprises in a production chain, from producers of raw material to manufacturers of end products.

Termination / dissolution of the enterprise

When transferring or selling your company, you will have to comply with a number of rules and regulations. You should also enter information about the sale into the Trade Register and reach a settlement with the Tax and Customs Administration. A business transfer within the family involves several other tax aspects.

Expatica will publish Becoming a self-employed entrepreneur the Netherlands (part 1) on Sunday 27 February.

Chambers of Commerce
The Dutch Chambers of Commerce provide information on starting a business, legal forms, registration in the trade register, international trade etc. We have accumulated knowledge, contacts and partnerships, which makes it the essential reference point for every firm doing or seeking to do business.

Drop by for specific information
Apart from general information, the Chambers of Commerce will be glad to provide you with further details regarding your specific position: either at the start of your business or while running it.

If you are located and/or interested in the Region Amsterdam:
Do call 020-5314684 for a consultation with one of our specialists of the Bedrijfsvoorlichting department.

Basic Information About Israeli Law

The Israeli legal system is based on common law, also known as case law or precedent law, which is based on decisions of courts and judges, but it has some parts of civil law as well.

This means that Israel does not have a formal Constitution, even though it was decided when the State of Israel was founded, that one would be written. In this way, the Israeli laws are similar to the ones in the United Kingdom, but in recent years, the Israeli court system and laws have also been heavily influenced by the laws in the USA and Canada.

The Common Law system was implemented by the British when they were governing Palestine before the independent state was founded, and several things have never been changed since then. Even some older laws, dating back to the Ottoman rule of Palestine, still remain in the Israeli law.
This is why Israeli law can be said to be as diverse as the history of the country itself.

As for the court system, there are several courts in Israel that influence the current laws. The Shalom Court, Beit Mishpat HaShalom in Hebrew, is a smaller court that handles only civil cases, where the disputed amount is less than 2,5 million NIS (New Israeli shekels, the currency of Israel), but it never deals with issues relating to ownership of land or with criminal cases where the sentence could be over 6 years of prison.
The Shalom Courts are based in the towns themselves, and most Israeli towns have one.
The District Court, or the Beit Mishpat Mehozi in Hebrew, deals with civil as well as criminal matters that do not fall under the jurisdiction of the Shalom Courts. It also deals with disputes related to ownership of land. People can also appeal sentences in the Shalom courts to the District Court.
Currently, there are 6 Disctrict Courts in Israel: in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Haifa, Petach Tikva, Beersheva and in Nazareth.
The Israeli Supreme Court, the Beit Mishpat Elyon, mostly deals with appeals from the District Courts, but also hears cases that do not fall under the jurisdiction of the District Courts, including political cases and international cases.
There are also several Labour Tribunals in Israel, that deal with all cases related to labour law, for instance cases between an employee and an employer.
Interestingly enough, Israel also has religious tribunals, and some very specific legal matters, such as cases where marriage and divorce is discussed, and so on, are judged by the religious tribunals. Since the population of Israel is multi-religious, there are several religious tribunals for different religions, including one for the Jewish community, one for the Muslim community, one for the Catholic Christian community, and so on.

The Advantages Of Employing Employment Attorney Nyc

It is so hard to establish a career with the unstable economy these days. With the tight competition out there, you should double your efforts to have the job you would like. But on the later part of the case, businesses may go through a few problems that may lead to reduction of employees. Needless to say, business abuses are present anywhere particularly in New York. The fact is, it can’t be helped that some workplaces are discriminating the jobless with the number of individuals seeking a job.

There are numerous things that can affect a person’s chances of getting hired. One of which is cronyism. This shows that applicants who know somebody in the company will have higher chances of getting hired, while folks who don’t will not. The truth is, most New Yorkers are more concerned about their employment status than finding properties. It is because the present unemployment rating is on the rise. However, job security is turning out to be a problem to plenty of employees.

Finding reputable and skilled NYCemployment attorneys is essential so as to make certain that employees will be able find it simpler to settle on to the modern workplace. With these lawyers, employees from both large and small corporations will be able to keep their employment and civil rights. More often than not, they also give their services to international places. It is not new to them to know that some workplaces discriminate their staff, particularly regarding race, religion, disability, sex and age. With their help, staff will have better chances of keeping their job without being stereotyped.

Whether your case involves harassment, gender equality issues, sexual harassment, breach of contract, executive compensation, or problems within partnerships, the employment lawyers can absolutely help you. Counseling and advice for financial institutions and also other firms in numerous states, assistance concerning new business initiatives, acquisitions, joint ventures and the likes, drafting and revising employee handbooks, as well as other employment-related documents are also offered by the NYC employment attorney. What they do is to keep up a sense of fairness and equality among all employees. They stand to defend workers from the maltreatment or abuse of power among businesses, which would ensure that all employees will obtain equal treatment. Remember that laws are implied as a way to secure both parties.

Another function of the employment lawyers is to facilitate a strong connection between companies and workers. The fact is, there are some firms that offer “value exchange to their workers. With this, the workplace can be transformed into an enjoyable, thriving, and fully engaged environment. This will make the workplace more lively and very unique than most employees are used to. This will have a huge impact to the employees as they can have a sense of freedom that can lead to productivity.
With regards to legal issues concerning your business and job, it’s best to have the aid of the NYC employment attorneys. They are fully aware of the discrimination patterns concerning social and professional classes. They also have a deep understanding about small and family-owned businesses that are caught up in legal matters with not enough financial resources. Obviously, your future is in the hands of experts that know every twist and turns in civil litigation. You may decide to discuss the issues personally to get things sorted out professionally.